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Russia. Russia’s Geo. Bigger than the U.S., Mexico, & Canada combined. How does this massive amount of territory affect human/enviro interaction? 1. Affects Development of certain areas 2. Some areas have dense pop others don’t 2 Plains that connect Europe & Asia: Northern European Plain

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russia s geo
Russia’s Geo
  • Bigger than the U.S., Mexico, & Canada combined.
  • How does this massive amount of territory affect human/enviro interaction?
  • 1. Affects Development of certain areas
  • 2. Some areas have dense pop others don’t

2 Plains that connect Europe & Asia:

  • Northern European Plain
  • Western Siberian Plain
russia s geo1
Russia’s Geo
  • Northern European Plain- center of economic life of ¾ of the people of Russia & Eurasian Republics & contains 2 of Russia’s largest cities (Moscow & St. Petersburg)
russia s geo2
Russia’s Geo
  • Western Siberian Plain- East of the Ural Mts. & is the worlds flattest land. Made up of swamps, marshes & frozen land not good for farming.
russia s geo3
Russia’s Geo

Turan Lowland- Lies tween the Caspian Sea & the Tian Shan Mt. range. Little land is suitable for living cause most of it is desert.

russia s mts
Russia’s Mts.
  • The Carpathian Mts. Boarder Ukraine & are an extension of the Alps
russia s mts1
Russia’s Mts.
  • The Caucasus Mts help form Russia’s SW boarder

Caspian Sea

Black Sea

russia s mts2
Russia’s Mts.
  • Ural Mts. Are rich in minerals & run from the Arctic Ocean to near Aral Sea.
  • They divide European Russia & Siberia.
russia s climate
Russia’s Climate
  • What has a great impact on climate in Russia?
  • SIZE
  • 2 major kinds of climate found in Russia
  • 1- Humid Continental
  • 2- Subarctic
  • Temperature variations are the craziest in the world.
  • Summers are warm but short.
  • Winters are long & always COLD.
  • More than ½ the land is covered in snow 6 months out of the year & some of the land is considered permafrost- permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the ground.
russia s waterways
Russia’s Waterways
  • 3 Main Rivers
  • 1. Volga- Flows through Central Russia & is considered the National river.
  • Even though its frozen 4-6 months out of the year it still is valuable to Russia.(hydro power & trade)
russia s waterways1
Russia’s Waterways
  • 2. Yenisei- Also frozen much of the year it flows from Lake Baikal to the Arctic Ocean.
  • It too provides hydro power to different parts of Russia.
russia s waterways2
Russia’s Waterways
  • 3. Lena- Eastern most of the 3 main rivers.
russia s seas lakes
Russia’s Seas & Lakes
  • Caspian Sea- worlds largest inland body of water.
  • Contains 1/3 of the salt water that sea water does.
  • Used to be part of the Black Sea then plate tectonics got involved.
aral sea
Aral Sea
  • Shrinking due to the USSR diverting the flow of rivers for irrigation.
lake baikal
Lake Baikal
  • The world’s oldest & deepest lake @ an average depth of 2,442 ft. (deepest part is 5,387 ft.)
  • It is also the world’s largest Fresh water lake.
russia broken down
Russia Broken Down
  • 2 sections:
  • 1. European Russia- Area of Russia W of Ural Mts.
  • 2. Siberia- Lies tween the Ural Mts & the Pacific Ocean in the East. It contains 71 % of Russia’s land mass.
trans siberian rr
Trans Siberian RR
  • RR connecting Moscow to Far Eastern Russia.
  • Longest RR in the world @ 5,753 miles.
  • Russia’s gov spent 1.455 billion rubles or $47.3 million btw 1891-1913 &Approved by Czar Alexander II
reasons for rr
Reasons for RR
  • In late 1800’s there weren’t many good roads in Siberia.
  • This hurt development, transportation, & economic growth across Siberia.
  • For about 5 months out of the year rivers were main transportation routes.
  • During the winter months people & goods moved by horse drawn sleds over the ice covered rivers.
  • Started @ each end & met in the middle.
  • Who would be a cheap labor force?
  • 1. Convicts
  • 2. Soldiers
  • Had many rivers & lakes that had to be crossed. Building the bridges slowed the process.
effects of rr on russia
Effects of RR on Russia
  • Gave a positive boost to Siberian agriculture & Russia’s overall economy.
  • Also allowed Russia to move Troops & Equipment during WWI, the Russian Revolution, & WWII.
  • Today people can ride from one end of Russia to the other in 8 days.
russian history
Russian History
  • Really started around 862 when civilizations from Europe moved into/invaded the area of what's now Russia.
  • When they started getting established, trade routes started forming & more people started coming in & settling the area.
  • Vladimir I brought the people together & started Russia’s 1st kingdom around 989 & lasted till around 1240
russian history1
Russian History
  • Around 1240 the Mongols came in & took over, burning most of the major cities on their way W to Europe.
  • The Mongols ruled until around 1480.
  • Just like the Dark Ages, most of Russian “enlightenment” disappeared from civilization.
famous infamous russians
Famous/Infamous Russians
  • Ivan IV the terrible- The 1st to call himself “Tsar”. He too expanded Russia.
  • Called this cause of how ruthless he was while in power.
  • Some accounts have him suffering from mental illness.
  • Actually killed his successor whom he chose and prepared for the role of Tsar.
famous infamous russians1
Famous/Infamous Russians
  • Peter I the great- Credited for making Russia an “Empire” He gave more power to the large landholders “modernizing” Russia
  • After he died, 40 yrs went by before Russia had another strong ruler.
famous infamous russians2
Famous/Infamous Russians
  • Catherine the great- married the heir to the Russian throne but thought he wasn’t fit to rule so she had him killed.
  • She was very skilled in foreign policy and expanding Russia even further.
russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • Causes:
  • 1. Yrs of oppressing the poor folks.
  • 2. “Bloody Sunday” 1905- shooting of 100’s of unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg on Jan. 22 1905. Many workers went on strike cause of this.
  • To stop the strikes Tsar, Nicholas II, executed over 1,000 folks & sent other 1,000’s to prison camps.
  • The positives were that this up rise empowered the people & made Nicholas II give the people power in the Russian gov.
russian revolution1
Russian Revolution
  • 3. WWI- 1917 were losing to the Germans mainly because they lacked the modern industry to support its war effort & didn't have an good railroad system to get supplies to the front.
  • This didn’t help the people’s confidence of Tsar Nicholas II.
  • Sick of the Tsar the workers, peasants, & soldiers rose up and demanded the redistribution of land.
  • Tsar Nicholas II left the throne in Feb 1917 & a provisional gov took over.
russian revolution2
Russian Revolution
  • The Prov Gov only lasted till October 1917 because it too was oppressive & cut out the working class folks.
  • A dude named Vladimir Lenin led another Revolution.
  • Lenin’s views on politics & rule led to what we now know as Communism.
communism vs socialism
Communism vs. Socialism
  • What is the difference?
  • Communism- is a political movement that aims for a classless society structured on community ownership of the means of production & the end of wage labor & private property.
  • Socialism- is an economic & political theory that supports public or common ownership & cooperative management of the means of production & allocation of resources.
cold war
Cold War
  • Mainly tween the U.S. & USSR.
  • The opposing sides were Communists vs. Anti-Communists
  • During WWII, the U.S. & USSR became the most powerful countries in the world.
  • Main Issues that started the CW:
  • 1. Treatment of occupied countries in E Europe.
  • 2. Economic Reconstruction of Europe.
  • 3. Fate of Germany.
cold war1
Cold War
  • Quickly all sides realized that the former allies could quickly become enemies.
  • U.S. President Harry Truman declared that the U.S. would, “Refuse to recognize any gov imposed on any nation by the force of any foreign power.”
  • One of the main tension building events was the “German Question”
cold war2
Cold War
  • German ? Back ground:
  • The USSR didn’t want another unified Germany that couldn’t be controlled.
  • The U.S. & G.B. were afraid of a Soviet dominated Germany that wanted to destroy the balanced pwr in post war Europe & possibly threaten W Europe.
  • 1. Why would the U.S. & G.B. be afraid of Russia?
  • 2. How could Russia take over the rest of Europe?
  • 3. What is keeping Russia from taking over?
cold war3
Cold War
  • Marshall Plan- was the primary program, 1947–51, of the U.S. for rebuilding & creating a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Europe.
  • USSR didn’t want any of their countries to participate in the program & this also led to the dividing of Germany’s capital city of Berlin.
  • Berlin was divided into E & W sections. The USSR getting the E & the U.S. getting the W.
  • Problem was that most of Germany’s food was in the Soviet occupied E.
berlin situation
Berlin Situation
  • The USSR began to restrict Traffic flow from W Germany & all traffic tween E &W Berlin was stopped.
  • USA & allies couldn’t get supplies or food into W Berlin.
  • Thought about getting a convoy & busting through the blockade, setting up a counter blockade.
  • Decided that an airlift would be the best solution to the problem.
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift
  • Carried out by the U.S. Air Force & began on June 28, 1948 & stopped on May 12, 1949.
  • In all there were 277,264 flights & 2.5 million tons of supplies carried.
  • Do you agree/disagree w/ President Truman's handling of the Soviet Blockade of Berlin? Why/why not? Was it effective in solving the crisis?
  • Should the Western powers have left Berlin to appease the Soviets?
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Back Ground:
  • 1. U-2 affair- US spy plane was shot down in Russia.
  • 2. Cuban Revolution- Fidel Castro over threw the Cuban Gov. & was then supported by Communist Russia & their leader Nikita Khrushchev.
  • 3. Bay of Pigs April 17, 1961: Plan that had approved by US President Eisenhower & acted upon by New US Pres John F. Kennedy.
  • The US was going to support 1,500 Anti-Castro troops.
  • US didn’t give them any military support & the Anti-Castro troops were crushed.
bay of pigs fall out
Bay of Pigs fall out
  • Former President Eisenhower told Kennedy that "The failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do.“
  • The half-hearted invasion left Soviet premier Khrushchev & his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was indecisive &, as one Soviet adviser wrote, "too young, intellectual, not prepared well for decision making in crisis situations ... too intelligent and too weak."
cuban missile crisis1
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • In 1962 the USSR was behind the U.S. in weapons technology.
  • Important cause Soviet missiles could only go so far & the range of the U.S. missiles could reach all of USSR.
  • Nikita Khrushchev thought of the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba.
  • Cause of the Bay of Pigs, Castro was looking for a way to defend his island nation from an attack by the U.S.
cuban missile crisis2
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The CMC began for the U.S. in October of 1962 after the U-2 spy plane got photos of the launch sites JFK was forced to act.
cuban missile crisis3
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • What were JFK’s options?
  • Thought about attacking Cuba from land & sea.
  • Ended up going for a Naval blockade around Cuba.
  • The U.S. announced that it would not let weapons to be delivered to Cuba.
  • U.S. also demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed in Cuba & remove all weapons.
cuban missile crisis4
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • On October 27, JFK announced to the people of the U.S. what was going on & gave a warning to the USSR that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be regarded as an attack on the United States by the Soviet Union.
  • It was solved On October 28 when the US & USSR agreed on several things.
  • 1. US would remove all missiles in Turkey & Italy.
  • 2. USSR would remove all missiles from Cuba & dismantle bombing sites.
  • 3. USSR would remove all light bomber planes from Cuba.
cold war4
Cold War
  • Space Race- 1955-1975
  • Russians were the first to:
  • 1. Put a human into space (Yuri Gagarin)
  • 2. Put a satellite into space (Sputnik)
space race
Space Race
  • 1 week after Gagarin's time in space, in 1961 JFK asked vice President Lyndon B. Johnson to look into the US space program & how to best catch NASA up w/ the Russians
  • Johnson came back & said that the US was way behind.
  • Johnson did recommend that the US be the 1st to try to land on the moon.
  • He thought that this goal was far enough into the future for the US to catch up & pass Russia in Technology.
space race1
Space Race
  • On May 25 JFK announced to Congress his theory behind the moon race.
  • "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon & returning him safely to the earth."
  • His justification for the Moon Race, was that it was both vital to national security & it would focus the nation's energies in other scientific & social fields
space race2
Space Race
  • Both sides had tragedies to start their races to the moon.
  • Russia had a rocket explode killing up to 150 Russian military personnel.
  • US had Apollo 1 disaster where the Astronauts were suffocated in a cabin fire during a ground test in 1967.
  • After this Russia fell WAAAAAYYYYYY behind in Space technology.
  • 1969 saw the final leg of the Moon Race, with the United States leading it after the flight of Apollo 8 (US Orbited the moon)
space race3
Space Race
  • The final straw for the Russians was the Apollo 11 moon landing on July 20, 1969.
cold war5
Cold War
  • Tensions cooled a little tween US & USSR in the 70’s until 1979.
  • Many issues re-lit the Cold War.
  • 1. War in Afghanistan- During December 1979, around 75,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Communist gov.
  • US stopped all trade w/ Russia & Pres. Jimmy Carter declared that it was the greatest “Threat to peace since the end of WWII.”
cold war economics
Cold War Economics
  • USSR had built up a military that used up 25% of its national spending.
  • The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the # & types of weapons they possessed, & in the number of troops.
  • Shortly after the Afghanistan invasion, Carter increased military spending.
  • Ronald Reagan continued the military build up & began the Strategic Defense Initiative “Star Wars.”
  • Missile could shoot other missiles down in flight.
end of the cold war
End of the Cold War
  • Due to crazy spending on the Military, Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev implemented his famous plan called “Perestroika” or restructuring.
  • Main thing about Perestroika was that it gave more power to civilian market spending & lessened the amount of funds spent on the military.
  • Once people saw that Gorbachev was opening the economy many things started to happen.
    • 1. Communist party gave up control of Russia
    • 2. The Soviet Union dissolved
    • 3. The Berlin Wall was torn down