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  1. Russia

  2. Russia’s Geo • Bigger than the U.S., Mexico, & Canada combined. • How does this massive amount of territory affect human/enviro interaction? • 1. Affects Development of certain areas • 2. Some areas have dense pop others don’t 2 Plains that connect Europe & Asia: • Northern European Plain • Western Siberian Plain

  3. Russia’s Geo • Northern European Plain- center of economic life of ¾ of the people of Russia & Eurasian Republics & contains 2 of Russia’s largest cities (Moscow & St. Petersburg)

  4. Russia’s Geo • Western Siberian Plain- East of the Ural Mts. & is the worlds flattest land. Made up of swamps, marshes & frozen land not good for farming.

  5. Russia’s Geo Turan Lowland- Lies tween the Caspian Sea & the Tian Shan Mt. range. Little land is suitable for living cause most of it is desert.

  6. Russia’s Mts. • The Carpathian Mts. Boarder Ukraine & are an extension of the Alps

  7. Russia’s Mts. • The Caucasus Mts help form Russia’s SW boarder Caspian Sea Black Sea

  8. Russia’s Mts. • Ural Mts. Are rich in minerals & run from the Arctic Ocean to near Aral Sea. • They divide European Russia & Siberia.

  9. Russia’s Climate • What has a great impact on climate in Russia? • SIZE • 2 major kinds of climate found in Russia • 1- Humid Continental • 2- Subarctic • Temperature variations are the craziest in the world. • Summers are warm but short. • Winters are long & always COLD. • More than ½ the land is covered in snow 6 months out of the year & some of the land is considered permafrost- permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the ground.

  10. Russia’s Waterways • 3 Main Rivers • 1. Volga- Flows through Central Russia & is considered the National river. • Even though its frozen 4-6 months out of the year it still is valuable to Russia.(hydro power & trade)

  11. Russia’s Waterways • 2. Yenisei- Also frozen much of the year it flows from Lake Baikal to the Arctic Ocean. • It too provides hydro power to different parts of Russia.

  12. Russia’s Waterways • 3. Lena- Eastern most of the 3 main rivers.

  13. Russia’s Seas & Lakes • Caspian Sea- worlds largest inland body of water. • Contains 1/3 of the salt water that sea water does. • Used to be part of the Black Sea then plate tectonics got involved.

  14. Aral Sea • Shrinking due to the USSR diverting the flow of rivers for irrigation.

  15. Lake Baikal • The world’s oldest & deepest lake @ an average depth of 2,442 ft. (deepest part is 5,387 ft.) • It is also the world’s largest Fresh water lake.

  16. Russia Broken Down • 2 sections: • 1. European Russia- Area of Russia W of Ural Mts. • 2. Siberia- Lies tween the Ural Mts & the Pacific Ocean in the East. It contains 71 % of Russia’s land mass.

  17. Trans Siberian RR • RR connecting Moscow to Far Eastern Russia. • Longest RR in the world @ 5,753 miles. • Russia’s gov spent 1.455 billion rubles or $47.3 million btw 1891-1913 &Approved by Czar Alexander II

  18. Reasons for RR • In late 1800’s there weren’t many good roads in Siberia. • This hurt development, transportation, & economic growth across Siberia. • For about 5 months out of the year rivers were main transportation routes. • During the winter months people & goods moved by horse drawn sleds over the ice covered rivers.

  19. Construction • Started @ each end & met in the middle. • Who would be a cheap labor force? • 1. Convicts • 2. Soldiers • Had many rivers & lakes that had to be crossed. Building the bridges slowed the process.

  20. Effects of RR on Russia • Gave a positive boost to Siberian agriculture & Russia’s overall economy. • Also allowed Russia to move Troops & Equipment during WWI, the Russian Revolution, & WWII. • Today people can ride from one end of Russia to the other in 8 days.

  21. Russian History • Really started around 862 when civilizations from Europe moved into/invaded the area of what's now Russia. • When they started getting established, trade routes started forming & more people started coming in & settling the area. • Vladimir I brought the people together & started Russia’s 1st kingdom around 989 & lasted till around 1240

  22. Russian History • Around 1240 the Mongols came in & took over, burning most of the major cities on their way W to Europe. • The Mongols ruled until around 1480. • Just like the Dark Ages, most of Russian “enlightenment” disappeared from civilization.

  23. Famous/Infamous Russians • Ivan IV the terrible- The 1st to call himself “Tsar”. He too expanded Russia. • Called this cause of how ruthless he was while in power. • Some accounts have him suffering from mental illness. • Actually killed his successor whom he chose and prepared for the role of Tsar.

  24. Famous/Infamous Russians • Peter I the great- Credited for making Russia an “Empire” He gave more power to the large landholders “modernizing” Russia • After he died, 40 yrs went by before Russia had another strong ruler.

  25. Famous/Infamous Russians • Catherine the great- married the heir to the Russian throne but thought he wasn’t fit to rule so she had him killed. • She was very skilled in foreign policy and expanding Russia even further.

  26. Russian Revolution • Causes: • 1. Yrs of oppressing the poor folks. • 2. “Bloody Sunday” 1905- shooting of 100’s of unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg on Jan. 22 1905. Many workers went on strike cause of this. • To stop the strikes Tsar, Nicholas II, executed over 1,000 folks & sent other 1,000’s to prison camps. • The positives were that this up rise empowered the people & made Nicholas II give the people power in the Russian gov.

  27. Russian Revolution • 3. WWI- 1917 were losing to the Germans mainly because they lacked the modern industry to support its war effort & didn't have an good railroad system to get supplies to the front. • This didn’t help the people’s confidence of Tsar Nicholas II. • Sick of the Tsar the workers, peasants, & soldiers rose up and demanded the redistribution of land. • Tsar Nicholas II left the throne in Feb 1917 & a provisional gov took over.

  28. Russian Revolution • The Prov Gov only lasted till October 1917 because it too was oppressive & cut out the working class folks. • A dude named Vladimir Lenin led another Revolution. • Lenin’s views on politics & rule led to what we now know as Communism.

  29. Communism vs. Socialism • What is the difference? • Communism- is a political movement that aims for a classless society structured on community ownership of the means of production & the end of wage labor & private property. • Socialism- is an economic & political theory that supports public or common ownership & cooperative management of the means of production & allocation of resources.

  30. Cold War • Mainly tween the U.S. & USSR. • The opposing sides were Communists vs. Anti-Communists • During WWII, the U.S. & USSR became the most powerful countries in the world. • Main Issues that started the CW: • 1. Treatment of occupied countries in E Europe. • 2. Economic Reconstruction of Europe. • 3. Fate of Germany.

  31. Cold War • Quickly all sides realized that the former allies could quickly become enemies. • U.S. President Harry Truman declared that the U.S. would, “Refuse to recognize any gov imposed on any nation by the force of any foreign power.” • One of the main tension building events was the “German Question”

  32. Cold War • German ? Back ground: • The USSR didn’t want another unified Germany that couldn’t be controlled. • The U.S. & G.B. were afraid of a Soviet dominated Germany that wanted to destroy the balanced pwr in post war Europe & possibly threaten W Europe.

  33. Questions • 1. Why would the U.S. & G.B. be afraid of Russia? • 2. How could Russia take over the rest of Europe? • 3. What is keeping Russia from taking over?

  34. Cold War • Marshall Plan- was the primary program, 1947–51, of the U.S. for rebuilding & creating a stronger economic foundation for the countries of Europe. • USSR didn’t want any of their countries to participate in the program & this also led to the dividing of Germany’s capital city of Berlin. • Berlin was divided into E & W sections. The USSR getting the E & the U.S. getting the W. • Problem was that most of Germany’s food was in the Soviet occupied E.

  35. Berlin Situation • The USSR began to restrict Traffic flow from W Germany & all traffic tween E &W Berlin was stopped. • USA & allies couldn’t get supplies or food into W Berlin. • Thought about getting a convoy & busting through the blockade, setting up a counter blockade. • Decided that an airlift would be the best solution to the problem.

  36. Berlin Airlift • Carried out by the U.S. Air Force & began on June 28, 1948 & stopped on May 12, 1949. • In all there were 277,264 flights & 2.5 million tons of supplies carried.

  37. Questions • Do you agree/disagree w/ President Truman's handling of the Soviet Blockade of Berlin? Why/why not? Was it effective in solving the crisis? • Should the Western powers have left Berlin to appease the Soviets?

  38. Cuban Missile Crisis • Back Ground: • 1. U-2 affair- US spy plane was shot down in Russia. • 2. Cuban Revolution- Fidel Castro over threw the Cuban Gov. & was then supported by Communist Russia & their leader Nikita Khrushchev. • 3. Bay of Pigs April 17, 1961: Plan that had approved by US President Eisenhower & acted upon by New US Pres John F. Kennedy. • The US was going to support 1,500 Anti-Castro troops. • US didn’t give them any military support & the Anti-Castro troops were crushed.

  39. Bay of Pigs fall out • Former President Eisenhower told Kennedy that "The failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do.“ • The half-hearted invasion left Soviet premier Khrushchev & his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was indecisive &, as one Soviet adviser wrote, "too young, intellectual, not prepared well for decision making in crisis situations ... too intelligent and too weak."

  40. Cuban Missile Crisis • In 1962 the USSR was behind the U.S. in weapons technology. • Important cause Soviet missiles could only go so far & the range of the U.S. missiles could reach all of USSR. • Nikita Khrushchev thought of the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. • Cause of the Bay of Pigs, Castro was looking for a way to defend his island nation from an attack by the U.S.

  41. Cuban Missile Crisis • The CMC began for the U.S. in October of 1962 after the U-2 spy plane got photos of the launch sites JFK was forced to act.

  42. Cuban Missile Crisis • What were JFK’s options? • Thought about attacking Cuba from land & sea. • Ended up going for a Naval blockade around Cuba. • The U.S. announced that it would not let weapons to be delivered to Cuba. • U.S. also demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases already under construction or completed in Cuba & remove all weapons.

  43. Cuban Missile Crisis • On October 27, JFK announced to the people of the U.S. what was going on & gave a warning to the USSR that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be regarded as an attack on the United States by the Soviet Union. • It was solved On October 28 when the US & USSR agreed on several things. • 1. US would remove all missiles in Turkey & Italy. • 2. USSR would remove all missiles from Cuba & dismantle bombing sites. • 3. USSR would remove all light bomber planes from Cuba.

  44. Cold War • Space Race- 1955-1975 • Russians were the first to: • 1. Put a human into space (Yuri Gagarin) • 2. Put a satellite into space (Sputnik)

  45. Space Race • 1 week after Gagarin's time in space, in 1961 JFK asked vice President Lyndon B. Johnson to look into the US space program & how to best catch NASA up w/ the Russians • Johnson came back & said that the US was way behind. • Johnson did recommend that the US be the 1st to try to land on the moon. • He thought that this goal was far enough into the future for the US to catch up & pass Russia in Technology.

  46. Space Race • On May 25 JFK announced to Congress his theory behind the moon race. • "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon & returning him safely to the earth." • His justification for the Moon Race, was that it was both vital to national security & it would focus the nation's energies in other scientific & social fields

  47. Space Race • Both sides had tragedies to start their races to the moon. • Russia had a rocket explode killing up to 150 Russian military personnel. • US had Apollo 1 disaster where the Astronauts were suffocated in a cabin fire during a ground test in 1967. • After this Russia fell WAAAAAYYYYYY behind in Space technology. • 1969 saw the final leg of the Moon Race, with the United States leading it after the flight of Apollo 8 (US Orbited the moon)

  48. Space Race • The final straw for the Russians was the Apollo 11 moon landing on July 20, 1969.