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Sub-Saharan Africa!

Sub-Saharan Africa!

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Sub-Saharan Africa!

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  1. Sub-Saharan Africa! LJ Cabutaje Emma Loh Rebecca Lee-McFadden Stephanie Lin George Kitsios Doug Chee Period 3

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa: 8000 BCE to 600 BCE

  3. The Neolithic Revolution (8,000 BCE - 2,000 BCE) • Around this period all over the world, the Neolithic Revolution was going on. This was prevalent due to a rising of the usage of agriculture in various places in the world. • Above the Saharan desert, agriculture spread from the Middle East, where it is believed to have first started, throughout the Mediterranean, into Greece and Egypt. However, in Sub-saharan Africa, because of an extremely different climate and different conditions from the rest of the world, agriculture started separately. • There were various grasses and plants cultivated in this area, such as sorghum, pearl millet and black-eyed peas, as the nomads became mostly sedentary peoples. One main trend that was occurring this time period was a mixture of sedentariness and nomadism. • This was called Pastoralism, in which groups of people would raise herds of livestock and move according to these animals' needs. This was favored in the more arid parts of the area, with the groups beginning to migrate south. • After a rather dry period around 5000 BCE in this region, people began to migrate towards the Nile River for a better climate and region for agriculture.

  4. 3100 BCE - 350 BCE: Nubia • Ancient Nubia was a land along the Nile River that was the only continuous piece of land that connected Sub-Saharan Africa Africa with Northern Africa. At its height, it stretched over 1,000 miles. • For thousands of years, it had served as a gateway for trade between Tropical southern Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. • It bordered Ancient Egypt to the north and was called the Kush by Egypt. Because of its control of gold reserves and other precious metals and stones, Egypt had great interest in the kingdom and often fought in wars with them to get control of the land. • Nubia was heavily influenced by Ancient Egypt, but the connection was mutual. Because of its location and natural resources, it was able to create a complex civilization, with social stratification, metallurgy, monumental building and writing. • By 1750 BCE the culture of the Kush was very prevalent. The kings had much power as visible through the fortifications built as well as monumental structures built as tribute to these kings and their gods. The role of women was not clear, but seemed similar to that of Ancient Egypt, in that women were subordinate to men and mostly stayed indoors.

  5. Map of Nubia and Ancient Egypt

  6. Nubia: Continued • During the New Kingdom of Egypt (1532-1070 BCE), the Egyptians penetrated more deeply into Nubia. • They destroyed the capital of Kush and began to exploit their gold mines to trade with the Middle East. • They dominated Nubia for more than 500 years and caused major integrations of culture. • The religion of Ancient Egypt was imposed on them and they erected major temples to many Egyptian gods.

  7. The Kingdom of Meroë (800 BCE - 350 BCE) • Egypt suffered a period of weakness after 1200 BCE, which led to the collapse of its authority in Ancient Nubia. • In the eighth century BCE, a new kingdom began to emerge in Southern Nubia. It first started where Egypt had first started, in Napata, but from 4th century BCE to the 4th century CE, the center was farther south in Meroë. • The Nubian kings ruled Egypt for half a century under the old Twenty-fifth dynasty, keeping Egyptian traditions, while igniting a new artistic and cultural rennaissance. • In 701 BCE, the Nubian rulers offered to help local rulers in Palestine, who were struggling against the Assyrian Empire. However, the Assyrians retaliated and invaded Nubia, forcing the monarchs to re-shift their rules back to the southern part of the kingdom by 660 BCE.

  8. The Kingdom of Meroë: Continued... • By the 4th century BCE, because of the southern shift, there were more sub-saharan influences in the culture of the Nubian kingdom. • Egyptian hieroglyphs were replaced by as-yet-untranslated new set of symbols for writing. They also continued to worship some Egyptian gods and goddesses, but there were more Nubian gods involved. Their art was a blend of Egyptian, Greco-Roman and indigenous art. • Women in the royal family were treated well and played an important role in politics, with some Nubian queens ruling on their own or with their husbands as partners. • Meroë was a rather large city, more than a square mile in area, with reservoirs to gather water and centers for iron smelting.There were also major religious center, such as the Temple of Amon which was unearthed in 2002. • Meroë collapsed in the early 4th century CE, overrun by nomads from the West, who were more able to invade because of the arrival of the camel, which increased their mobility. Another reason for its collapse was shifting trade routes, which weakened their economies and trade with other territories.

  9. Organization/Reorganization of Human Societies: 600 BCE-600 CE

  10. Interaction Between Humans and the Environment • The Bantu migrated and spread new crops all over the continent and also the technique of iron smelting, displacing hunter-gatherer societies with agricultural ones • the Bantu used iron axes and hoes to clear forests and plant crops • banana trees make their way from the south up to the north and west of Africa • the technique of iron smelting is hypothesized to be discovered by the Africans or spread by the Bantu from the north, since the only known records of discovery were with the Hittites of Anatolia • camels were vital to trade as they were suited to desert conditions and could help pull caravans

  11. Development and Interaction of Cultures • technologies such as the stirrup, yokes, collars, and pack saddles increased the efficiency of trade • Bantu migrations southward spread their culture and language using oral traditions and united Sub-Saharan Africa with a common cultural identity - it is believed that they started to migrate due to overpopulation, conflict, or search for land • major religious beliefs include animism and shamanism due to their reliance on the natural world • Bantu believed that the dead exist as spirits and influence the living, and that many spirits identified with natural forces • traces of Egyptian influence on Saharan rock art exist, but natural barriers prevent most external influence such as cultural or technological diffusion • Around 350 CE, Christianity introduced into Sub-Saharan Africa through Axum (Aksum)

  12. State-Building, Expansion and Conflict • The Nok civilization flourished in Nigeria after 1000 BC - it is believed to be the earliest known civilization of Africa - had skilled gardeners and artisans and also started producing iron by 500 BC and produced life sized terracotta • most Africans lived in villages, but cities began to develop around this time • as the Bantu migrated southward they often fought territorial wars • introduction of Christianity and other religions sparked tensions • the ancient city of Djenne-Djeno dates from 250 BC by the Niger River Valley - had mud-brick houses and produced rice • the kingdom of Ghana begins to take shape around 500 CE and starts trading gold, exotic foods, and oil with Berber traders

  13. Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems • most of the societies were based largely on simple agriculture with primitive irrigation • pastoralism was still common among seminomadic people, including the Bantu • the Bantu migrations created large trading networks throughout southern Africa • Indian Ocean trade linked the east Africa coast(Swahili coast) with India and Southeast Asia • Nubia was one of the few avenues of north-south trade with its prosperous iron-producing city of Meroe as its capital and helped to link Egypt with the south - brought back manufactured goods from Egypt

  14. Development and Transformation of Social Structures • In African kingdoms, kingship displayed common features such as the ritual isolation of the king himself and right to rule by descent from divine ancestors • fixed social categories such as age groupings, kinship divisions, distinct gender roles and relations, even in societies too small to be called kingdoms - they were not hierarchical • stronger societies eventually developed into kingdoms ex: Djenne-Djeno, Axum(Aksum) • villages were organized into extended families who claimed descent from a great ancestor • the kinship principle was fundamental to social organization- loyalties to the clans were important • some clans were combined into tribes that were headed by tribal chiefs • as these societies experienced productive economies, property relationships and increasingly common warfare, matrilineal clans gave way to patrilineal groups such as when the dowry was replaced by "bride-price", but women still held power as traditional values were cherished

  15. Regional and Transregional Interactions: 600 CE to 1450

  16. Interaction Between Humans and the Environment: 600 - 1450 CE • Usage of camels and salt to trade across the desert and in arid climates. • As trade increased, more people settled in cities. • Natural resources were depleted and gold mines were exhausted in order to meet the demands of trading.

  17. Development and Interaction of Cultures: 600 - 1450 CE • Spread of Islam through Arab as well as North African merchants and traders. Islam became increasingly popular in West and Eastern Africa. Mosques were built. Art and culture were also affected. Intellectual centers were established. • People still held onto animistic beliefs. In Central and Southern Africa, Islam was not as influential. • Sculptures, carvings, oral tradition and storytelling still remained important to the art and culture.

  18. State-Building, Expansion and Conflict: 600 CE - 1450 • Larger states and kingdoms were established due to an increase in trade and interaction. • Ghana (West Africa) ~500-1076 grew prosperous because of trans-saharan trading major supplier of gold Decline -- weakened by low food production due to arid environment. Muslim Berbers easily conquered them. • Great Zimbabwe (Southern Africa) 1200 -1450 political and religious center walled city, architecturally impressive, shows organization/leadership very wealthy because of gold and diamond deposits part of Indian Ocean trading route

  19. State Building, Expansion and Conflict cont. • Mali (West Africa) 1250-1460 succeeded Ghana was an Islamic state-- good trade relations with the Middle East. Followed Islamic law (shari'a) continued to trade gold and salt Timbuktu,Gao and Jenne served as important cities for scholarly activity, religious studies, cultural diffusion and trading. Mansa Musa- important, famous king of Mali Ibn Battuta recorded his observations of the Mali Empire • Eastern African City States very diverse, multiethnic Swahili spoken city states in Mombasa, Sofala, and Zanzibar very important trading places

  20. Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems: 600 CE - 1450 • Trans-Saharan Trading • connected North Africa with West Africa • camels used • traded gold for salt. Salt was very important because it was necessary for preservation of food and survival in the arid climate. • Indian Ocean Trading • connected Asia and India with Southern and East Africa • traded ivory, gold, slaves

  21. Development and Transformation of Social Structures: 600 CE - 1450 • With increasing trade, merchants especially in coastal cities were valued and seen as a part of the upper class. • The arrival of Islam led to an intellectual, scholar class to rise. • Most families, societies, and small tribes were patrilineal. However, there were matrilineal ones as well. • Women, while beneath men, were still important to raise children and educate them about their beliefs, traditions, and culture.

  22. Global Interactions: 1450-1750

  23. State-Building, Expansion and Conflict WEST AFRICA - Fall of the Mali: Under Malinke rule, rebellions break out between the diverse peoples and by 1500, consist of little more than the heartland. 1471: Portuguese arrive on the African Coast in search of GOLD and a route to India! Africans trade gold in exchange for goods from Portugal, Asia, Europe and other parts of Africa. Songhai Empire: a large Muslim empire and a major player in trans-Saharan trade. Conquered in 1590 by Moroccans as a divided kingdom. KEY CITY: Timbuktu Askia Mohammed: centralized a complex bureaucracy, sponsored art, scholarship, mosques. The Epic of Askia Mohammed, a West African classic. Hausa trading cities: agricultural people who were lived in city-states. Imports: textiles, hardware, weapons. Exports: gold, textiles, leather goods, slaves. 19th C: conquered by the Sokoto. Bornu: powerful kingdom which spread Islam and was important in trans-Saharan trade. 16th C: expanded with imported guns from the Ottomans. (9th-19th C) Asante: (1680): gained lots of power by selling gold/slaves for muskets/gunpowder. Abundant in minerals/resources. West Africans started to fight with other tribes/states for POWs for slave trade. SOUTH - Kongo: (1400-, modern day Angola) developed out of the Bantu community. 1650 Portuguese slave traders arrived/influenced it. Sacrificed autonomy→powerful and more centralized, pop = 500k Weakened because of internal conflict/succession issues.

  24. Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems 1500-1700 GOLD TRADE PREDOMINATES 1600s: the profitable expansion of sugar agriculture (African Coast, Brazil, West Indies by Portuguese, Dutch)→opened a new era in African slave trade. 1700-1830 SLAVE TRADE - Islamic (650-1950): smaller than the transatlantic trade at peak. 850,000 slaves imported and exported to the Middle East/India and North Africa via Red Sea/Indian Ocean. More politically and culturally involved with Africa. Transported ~2m slaves. long established trade connections, spread Islam through Mali/Songhai RISE of Atlantic: (1550-1800)Shorter than Islamic. Imported trade goods. Transported ~8m slaves during 1650-1800 to West Indies/Brazil. A gradual process and slave trade was becoming the most valuable export. Ivory, gold and timber remained valuable exports and non-slave exports remained dominant in West Africa. 1400s: 1000 slaves/year 1600s: 1 million slaves 1500s: 2000 slaves/year 1700s: 6 million slaves By 1700s - Atlantic Circuit: the network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, the Americas. Included the Middle Passage, which was the route from Africa→ Americas. WHY: Both Europeans merchants/the few African elite benefited with goods that made their empires stronger and wealthier; many more Africans suffered.

  25. Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems EAST AFRICA: participated in the Indian Ocean trade network. First visited by the Portuguese, who conquer many cities on its coast in the 1500s. Portuguese still prominent even though Arabs try to expel them. Effect on Economics: Africans would only trade certain things→limited volume of goods → stimulated local production. Africans and European states benefited from taxing trade, most $$$ went to Europeans/American colonies. The demand for slaves INC = slave prices INC; in the 1700s, prices x2, x3, x4 • African rulers prevented Europeans from taking over much land, closely monitored and collected rents/taxes from European trading posts on the Gold and Slave coasts. Rivalry among the European nations each with their own trading castles also reduced bargaining strength, many other competitors. Africans take advantage by acquiring firearms to strengthen their army and annex others→gain POWs→slave trade.

  26. Interaction Between Humans and the Environment Portuguese originally pushed down the African coast to find a faster route to India's markets and eventually conquered East African cities to be closer to India. Trade peak: 1700s, overall population of Africa remained very large and even though the slave trade impacted the amount of lives, the Atlantic trade favored men and left fertile women in Africa. Patterns of settlement: Even though there were many diverse empires all over Africa, the strongest empires were in West Africa; the first to come into contact with Europeans and gain access to firearms, wealth, exotic goods. Technology: No major scientific gains, as leaders kept most of the wealth to themselves and enslaved others with the help of European technology of muskets and gunpowder in warfare against other African tribes/states. Disease: No industrialization since mainly trade based, but disease was prevalent in the early years of Atlantic trade because of the inhumane conditions on the ships. Later, slave mortality rate rose but only because dead slaves were financial losses to Europeans.

  27. Development and Interaction of Cultures • Sub-Saharan Africans gradually learned of Muslim beliefs and practices from trades from North Africa or Middle Easterners in East African trading cities. Islamic influence: Scholars and merchants learned Arabic to communicate with North Africans and to read the Quran. Beliefs, practices, legal and administrative systems were implemented in African trading cities, and was a mostly urban religion. long-established trade connections that spread Islam and created Songhai/Mali European influence: Much more limited than Islam. Apart from interest on the coast, Christianity was only significant in Angola during this time period. Traders learned European languages; African languages still dominated inland routes. Merchants sent their sons to Europe. The faster/larger ships accelerated the output of the Atlantic slave trade ART • Produced wood carvings, sculptures, metalwork, painting, ivory carvings, and textiles. Textile arts were usually sold to the elite. Woven basketry was popular in East Africa. Sculpture was the main art form, along with masks and beadwork. A lot of African art was abstract. Architecture was influenced by Arabs and European structures built in East/West Africa.

  28. Development and Transformation of Social Structures WOMEN • Several West African groups were MATRILINEAL in organization. Women also were able to participate in leadership with some becoming rulers. Women took part in markets and some administrated them. WHY: not because of gender equality, but women took these positions in the absence of males. (Queen Nzinga of Angola defended her people against the Portuguese.) • North Africa (Islam dominated): upper-class women were sheltered and wore veils. Economic necessity forced other women to work outside of the home. • By the 1700s as the slave trade began to peak, families were separated during the Middle Passage along with mixing with other tribes. RACE • 1600s, SOUTH A: Control passes from Bantu tribes→Portuguese→Dutch settlers or Boers(farmers/traders) develop Afrikaans and harshly treat the natives (origins of apartheid). Boers vs. Zulu: many wars No rigid social structure apart from the monarch above all others. Most Africans were poor and from the rural area.

  29. 1750 - 1900: Late 18th Century State-Building: From the late 1700s to the mid 1800s, many African states were able to expand without major foreign dominance. West: Many states remained independent into the 1800s (Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba) • Asanti Kingdom: Most unified/longest lasting independent state. Used gold/slave trade profit to buy guns, becoming a military power. Threatened European trade and policy in the early 1800s. Fell to the British in the Asante wars (1823). • Sokoto Caliphate: One of the largest Islamic reform movements, led by Muslim armies, conquering the Hausa states under Usaman dan Fodio (1745-1817). Became centers of Islamic learning and reform. Non-Muslims were permitted, as long as they paid taxes. Slave trade was very big. East: • Ethiopia: Modernized under Theodore II, in 1855. • Zanzibar: Important East African port, made capital by the sultan of the Omani Arabs in 1840. They had tremendous political and economic influence in Africa. South: • Shaka Zulu: The chieftain Shaka (1818-1828) expanded the Zulu people's state by raiding neighboring Africans, causing massive tribal migrations throughout Africa. Often warred with British and Boers (Dutch settlers).

  30. Economic Interactions: Sub-Saharan Africa was always relatively unindustrialized, and had to receive machine made products (cloths, metals) from other countries. In exchange, Africa exported slaves and various raw materials. - Raw materials include gold, copper, pelts, ivory, and vegetable oils. - Countries often had a single cash crop - leaving them vulnerable to change - Traded with the Middle East, Americas, and the Europeans ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: - Slaves played massive role in European economy - colonies, plantations, etc - Slave trade caused human suffering, population loss, tribal warfare, ABOLITION OF SLAVERY: Post Napoleonic Wars - Result of economic problems (too expensive) and anti-slavery sentiment. - 1808 - Great Britain attempts abolishment, asking other nations to follow - The drastic halt led to economic weakness and vulnerability to takeover - Some slave trade continued illegally, finally dying down around 1867. "LEGITIMATE" TRADE: - Despite the end of the massive slave trade, Africa continued to trade by finding other types of exports - their legitimate trade. - Palm oil, from West Africa, was among the most popular of these exports, used to manufacture soap, candles, and lubricants

  31. Interactions Between Cultures: Scramble For Africa (1870s-1900s) The 1870s marked the height of Western influence in Sub-Saharan Africa, which was previously shaped by various Islamic movements. Europe's invasion and colonization was the result of... • Western demand for minerals and Africa's economic weakness/lack of unity • Political competition among the Western nations to obtain these resources • Cultural motives and racism (The White Man's Burden) • Geographic expeditions and developments against tropical diseases 1880s - Otto von Bismarck's Berlin Conference finalized the decision to partition Africa. West Africa: Flourishing trade! • Settlers took advantage of trade networks, taxed farmers, and bought products from farmers to sell to the global market at a higher price Equatorial Africa: Less inhabitants and less trade, but lots of land. • French and Portuguese sold the territories to private companies, which are able to force the natives to produce and ship cash crops at gunpoint. Southern Africa: Had been desirable land before New-Imperialism. • Gold, copper, iron, coal, and diamond deposits.

  32. Western Imperialism Continued... EFFECTS AND CONSEQUENCES: - Exploitation or abuse of the native African people - Christian missionaries and priests convert some Africans, but many Muslim Africans are brought even closer to Islam because of colonialism. - Economic relevance of Sub-Saharan Africa continued through the European powers. - Some industrial technology was brought to Africa, though they would still be relatively economically backward post-colonialism. - Lots of conflict - the Boer War (1899-1902) fought between the Dutch Boers and British, for example, had 120,000 civilians placed in concentration camps by the British, tens of thousands of them dead by the war's end.

  33. Social Structures: (1750-1900) • Race: - White man's burden: sense of burden to convert "heathen" Africans to Christianity, abolishing slavery so that they can be Westernized. - The classification of humans as "civilized" based on their physical traits - Slavery: Usually very limited in life options, though some slaves of coastal traders in the palm oil business were allowed to gain wealth and power! • Gender Roles: - African men often went to work in mines/plantations - African women left on the farm to work, or care for their family • Gender Inequality: - African men had more rights than African women - such as property rights - Jobs, such as being a teacher, vendor, or even being in family business were often discouraged for women.

  34. Accelerating Global Change and Realignments: 1900 - Present

  35. PREFACE 1 -Early 1900s, new European countries in power of claimed colonies take full advantage of the land and its people at their disposal -Commercial monocrop systems become increasingly popular (English, Dutch, Belgian colonies for: minerals, copper, etc.) -Migration: After the Berlin Conference, Africa is essentially divided up by borders solely designed to convenience European economic endeavors in the area. BAD: Many ethnic groups/tribes that do not get along are forced into each others "arms", resulting in civil war situations throughout the continent (Ex: Nigeria 1960s) -Technology: An absolute flourish of technology in the area as a result of the new imperialistic influence -cash crops for rubber, coffee, etc -factories -plantations/mines -educational opportunities -leads to creation of more educated class of people who start to get fed up with the current European rule.

  36. PREFACE 2 -1910, Boer war ends in South Africa, Britain gains control, many native South Africans killed -Negritude Movement begins 1920s, "African consciousness/national pride" -FF, WWII, thousands of black soldiers fight for the allies in the name of freedom/democracy; begin to want it for themselves -Postwar, movements continue, as some nations gain their independence from Euro. parent countries. Those who gain it slowly remain more stable though. -Many movements peaceful, yet most had to fight for their freedom -Motives behind movements not always clear, some had external capitalist/communist influences! -Creating a new government from nothing is difficult especially with ethnic strife in the way (INTERNAL/EXTERNAL PREVENTION OF GOAL). **Keep in mind 2 countries were free to begin with: Liberia/Ethiopia**

  37. Ghana Leads, Slowly:-start off by gaining political representation -Starting in 1947, Kwame Nkrumah leads a non-violent movement to liberate Gold Coast from British. By 1957, Gold Coast becomes fully independent, "Ghana" -Aspires to be US of Africa. Nkrumah 1st Pres, large reform: -schools, roads, healthcare (NEW), industrialization -spent too much time on Pan African efforts, so lost control of country in 1966 to police coup. 1st open elections in 2000. Kenya: -British also ruled, take advantage of farmland as prize -Kenyans develop strong nationalist feelings, led by Jomo Kenyatta -Nationalist violent group becomes next answer, form Mau Mau -Gain independence in 1963, but kill over 10,000 Africans (worth it?) -Kenyatta 1st pres, tries to unite different ethnicities, but dies 1978 -Daniel arap Moi takes over, oppressive 1 party rule, corrupt -Free elections 2002, Moi stepped down MOVEMENTS (SPEED ROUND)

  38. MOVEMENTS CONT'D Algeria: -France's primary colony, 1 million French, 9 million Arabs -Postwar, French refuse to share political power with Algerians -1954, Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) declares independence, prompts French to send 500k troops into area -FLN somehow prevails, Ahmed Ben Bella 1st pres, July 1962 -Bella tries to make Algeria a socialist state (NOTE OUTSIDE SOVIET INFLUENCE!!!), taken out in 1965. -1965-1988, rapid, unsuccessful modernization. Unemployment sky high, many fundamentalists want to make it Islamic State -1990 elections Islamic party wins, outcome rejected, provokes civil war, on and off till now. Angola: -Fight for independence and to keep it together later -1975 Throw out Portuguese 50,000 troops, made it too costly -MPLA communists (assisted by USSR/Cuba) promptly take over the country, prolonged internal civil war with UNITA (backed by USA) -Cease fire in 2002

  39. MOVEMENTS (1 MORE I PROMISE) Congo: -Another mess, dealt with harsh Belgian rule of plundering -No social services, massive hatred towards parent gov't -Gain independence (violently) in 1960, but wait for it... -Right after freedom, civil war ensued, divided until Mobutu Sese Seko takes over in 1965 for 32 years (renamed Congo->Zaire) -Ruled through militant force, eventually rebellion prevails against him in 1997, becomes Democratic Republic of Congo, Laurent Kabila becomes pres, killed soon after. Remains most dangerous country in world. Nigeria: -After independence in 1960, organized through culturally ignorant federal system, richest/most pop. country in Africa is divided. -Yoruba takeover in 1963, Nigerian govt fights back 1970, reunited(?) -Military governs country throughout 1970s, jail dissidents -Little infrastructure, try to rebuild through oil. -Elect 1st civilian pres in 2003, after 20 years

  40. SIKE... South Africa: -1948 National Party institutes apartheid, ghettos form (75%-13% stat), white Afrikaner National Party minority rules -Fight back, ANC, peacefully, then violently; riots break out in 1976 (Led by Nelson Mandela). 600 students dead. 1977 Stephen Biko beat to death, Mandela put in jail. 1986 state of emergency. **Desmond Tutu** -Success? FW de Klerk comes to power, ends apartheid, legalied ANC, looks to end isolation and bring South Africa back to the top. Blacks gain most if not all rights back. -Free vote 1994, Mandela wins, draft constitution in 1996, things look better -Thabo Mbeki becomes pres, things get worse, murder/AIDS up. -But fixes economy, free-trade agreements benefit both sides -Host world cup in 2010, big PR/economy boost, biggest hope for future.

  41. ALL TOGETHER NOW Keep in Mind: -Unification of new formed nations was a large problem that was faced. Many who were simply dropped into freedom didn't know how to handle it, and failed (Congo, Nigeria, Algeria, Angola). The ones best prepared (SA, Ghana, Kenya) did well -Problems of old stayed: many situations saw old regimes/rules leave, only to be replaced by new ones with more familiar faces, so not real freedom. Ethnic tensions also have remained in some areas. -New Problems: Womens rights just starting to pan out in Sub Saharan Africa, however many countries are still extremely dangerous (rape, AIDS, gang violence) -Success: There was large success in the area as well, as it took a large leap forward in terms of technology and international roles in trade. International relations much better now, as mutually beneficial agreements are being made for trade and intelligence


  43. Works Cited • Bulliet, Richard W., Pamela K. Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print. • McCannon, John. Barron's AP world history. 5th ed. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's, 2012. Print. • Gascoigne, Bamber. “History of Sub-Saharan Africa” HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing.

  44. Rubric In addition to the paper, you will be working with other classmates to create a Power Point presentation summarizing main historical developments in the region assigned to the group. The “historical highlights” should be organized according to the six time periods organized by the AP program. The PPT should be emailed to me any time before your group is scheduled to present. The presentation should include: 1) Political maps of the region (one for each time period) indicating the main units during each period (cities, kingdoms, empires, nation-states). 2) Main developments in each one of the historical themes. Maximum number of slides per historical period is 5 (excluding the slide containing the map.) 3) A slide with a bibliography of all sources used for the presentation.