G063 - Standards & Protocols. Learning Objectives:. By the end of this topic you will be able to: explain the importance of standards for communicating between devices explain how protocols are used to enable communication between devices Synoptic objective:
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Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you will be able to: • explain the importance of standards for communicating between devices • explain how protocols are used to enable communication between devices Synoptic objective: • explain why network standards are required
Importance of Standards • if you purchase a device from one manufacturer – you expect it to work with similar devices from another manufacturer To make this possible: • network devices need a standard method of communication • can’t all use their own ‘language’ • they wouldn’t be able to communicate or transfer data • need a set of rules - a protocol
Protocols • a standard set of rules that enable devices to communicate with each other • used to ensure the proper transfer of data between devices • by defining how data is transferred
How protocols are used within a network. • define what control signals are used • used to indicate the sending device has finished sending • determine error checking to be used • determine any compression methods • indicates destination address • used to indicate the receiving device has received data Examples: • TCP/IP defines how signals are sent across the Internet enabling users to communicate with each other • SMTP governs the sending of emails between devices
Different Protocols • TCP/IP • used for Internet communication. • “Wi-Fi” • wireless networking protocol • 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n variants • GSM/GPRS/3G • mobile phone protocols • for voice, SMS, Internet, data • Bluetooth • protocol for short-range wireless communication • between ‘phones, headsets, computers
Different Protocols • MIDI • used to connect electronic musical instruments and computers • SWIFT • used by Banks in 8,000 financial institutions in 206 countries • to exchange financial transaction data. • NMEA • GPS protocol for satellite navigation
Why have Protocols? • communication will be transparent to the user, • user doesn’t need to know anything about “how” • the hardware and software involved at each end of the communication may be very different • communication still takes place • systems can be from different manufacturers/providers • hardware and software developers can develop systems that they know will sell • because they comply with clearly defined & agreed standards.
What is a Standard?  One from, two marks each; • a set of rules used to ensure the correct transfer of data between devices • a set of rules to allow devices to work together • a benchmark that ensures minimum performancelevel
Why are Standards important?  • devices can be purchased from different manufactures • and are known to work together • allows competition between manufacturers • giving better value for money / lower price • better choice • innovation • performance level guaranteed • know performance will meet requirements • no need to test yourself