Drowning New Definitions and Protocols. Charles Stewart MD, EMDM Director of Research University of Oklahoma Tulsa School of Community Medicine Oklahoma Institute for Disaster and Emergency Medicine. Drowning.
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Charles Stewart MD, EMDM
Director of ResearchUniversity of Oklahoma
Tulsa School of Community MedicineOklahoma Institute for Disaster and Emergency Medicine
Much of our experience with the resuscitation of patients is a direct result of man’s ventures into the water.
Definitions were revised at 2002 World congress on Drowning in Amsterdam, Netherlands. They are now internationally accepted and more uniform
Survival beyond 24 hours after immersion.
This definition is no longer used…
Submersion in a fluid resulting in immediate death or death with 24 hours
Respiratory impairment from submersion in a liquid. May have outcome of death, morbidity, or no morbidity
The fluid does not have to be water
aspirated water matter?
There are REAL differences
drownings are different
A special case….
Survival Times - Persons of Average Build
Water Temperature Survival Time
0 Deg C 45 minutes
9.5 deg C 2 to 3 hours
11 deg C 4 hours
14 deg C 6 hours
18 deg C 10 hours
aren’t dead until
they are WARM and DEAD
American Red Cross
In near drownings that involve falls, moving water, boating, and surfing accidents.
Always take C-spine precautions
is unproved in near drownings
As always .... controversial
and observed ...
But for how long?
> 8,000 death/year