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Motivation and Emotion. Motivation. Instinct Theory : we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors. But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors. Drive Reduction Theory. Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS . Wants to maintain homeostasis.

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  • Instinct Theory: we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors.
  • But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors.
drive reduction theory
Drive Reduction Theory
  • Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS.
  • Wants to maintain homeostasis.
  • When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive.
  • Primary versus Secondary drives
arousal theory
Arousal Theory
  • We are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal.
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law
yerkes dodson law
Yerkes-Dodson Law
  • The Yerkes-Dodson Law says we perform best under the optimal amount of arousal. (Like Goldilocks)
  • Not too much, not too little.
maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal.
  • We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first.
biological basis of hunger
Biological Basis of Hunger
  • Hunger does NOT come from our stomach.

It comes from our…

  • Brain

What part of the brain?

  • The Hypothalamus

Lateral Hypothalamus

Ventromedial Hypothalamus

When stimulated you feel full.

When lesioned you will never feel full again.

  • When stimulated it makes you hungry.
  • When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again.

I’m late for lunch. I’m hungry. The lateral hypothalamus makes you hungry.

set point theory
Set Point Theory
  • The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat.
  • Wants to maintain a stable weight.
  • Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight.
  • Leptin theory
body chemistry
Body Chemistry
  • Glucose
  • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat.
  • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
psychological aspects of hunger
Psychological Aspects of Hunger
  • Internals versus Externals
  • The Garcia Effect


Mice Wine

Fried Frog Legs

Criadillas- bull testicles.

eating disorders
Eating Disorders

Bulimia Nervosa

  • Characterized by binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of the food).
anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Starve themselves to below 85% of their normal body weight.
  • See themselves as fat.
  • Vast majority are women.
  • Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues.
  • Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity.

Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.

sexual motivation
Sexual Motivation
  • Sex is natural.
  • Without sex, none of us would be here.
  • How do scientists (or you) find out about sex?

YOU ASK!!!!!!

kinsey s studies
Kinsey’s Studies
  • Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s).
  • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
  • Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual.

Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.

masters and johnson study
Masters and Johnson Study
  • In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex.
  • 382 females and 312 males.

After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight.

mapped out the sexual response cycle
Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle
  • Initial Excitement
  • Plateau Phase
  • Orgasm
  • Resolution Phase (with refractory period).
psychological factors in sexual motivation
Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation
  • Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex.
  • Heiman 4 tape study.
  • People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.
we have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction
We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction:

Sexual Orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender.

how is sexual orientation determined
How is Sexual Orientation Determined
  • There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined.
  • Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents.
  • This it is likely biologically determined.
the brain
The Brain
  • Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.
prenatal environment
Prenatal Environment
  • Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment.
  • We have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!!
achievement motivation what motivates us to work school job sports video games relationships etc
Achievement MotivationWhat motivates us to work?(School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)

Intrinsic Motivators

Extrinsic Motivators

Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..)

Work great in the short run.

  • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
achievement motivation
Achievement motivation

Where would one stand to practice if they had high achievement motivation?

  • Those with high achievement motivation will choose tasks that are moderately difficult. Not too hard because they want to achieve. Not too easy because they want to feel good about themselves.
overjustification effect
Overjustification effect

Studies show that if you externally reward someone (excessively) for something they love doing, they will lose their intrinsic desire for doing it.

  • Alex Rodriguez earns 27.5 million dollars per year. Does he love the game??
management theory management teaching styles relate closely to intrinsic extrinsic motivators
Management TheoryManagement/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators.

Theory X

Theory Y

Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive.

Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.

  • Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment.
  • Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated.
  • Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs.
when motives conflict
When Motives Conflict
  • Approach-approach conflict – when we have 2 desirable things to choose from. Both Beyonce and Tyra Banks want to date you.
approach avoidance conflict
Approach –avoidance conflict
  • Both options have their benefits and drawbacks. Example, telling your wife that her hair looks bad. The good is she’ll fix it. The bad is she might be mad at you for a few hours.
avoidance avoidance conflict
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
  • You must choose between 2 equally unattractive options.
james lange theory of emotion
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
  • Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion.
  • Based on our autonomic nervous system
  • The body changes and our mind interprets those changes as emotion.
  • “I’m afraid because I run”
Male participants were asked to meet an interviewer in the middle of one of two bridges. One was a safe-looking bridge and one looked more dangerous. An attractive female researcher interviewed the male passers-by in the middle of the two bridges. She gave them her telephone number in case they wanted to ask about the results. Men on the less safe-looking bridge were more aroused by the height of the bridge, and were likely to confuse their feelings for being 'lovestruck'. They were then more likely to call her back, looking for a date.
  • Support for James Lange????
Giving the Finger, the Psychology and History Thereof By William Weir on February 13, 2009
  • For the study, 54 right-handed subjects read a story about a person whose behavior could be interpreted as either assertive or hostile. One group extended their forefinger while reading, another group extended their middle finger. The latter group tended to assert that person in the essay was hostile, rather than assertive.
  • Support for the James Lange theory??
the effects of facial expression
The Effects of Facial Expression

If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing

brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.

Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/

The New York Times Pictures

Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.

cannon bard theory of emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
  • Say James-Lange theory is full of crap.
  • The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously.
  • They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
think 2 cannons firing at the same time
Think – 2 cannons firing at the same time.

Physiologicalchange (heart rate, breathing)

Cognitive awareness

two factor theory of emotion
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
  • Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.
  • They happen at the same time but…
  • Emotion is processed in the autonomic nervous system AND the cerebral cortex (conscious thought)
  • Includes cognitive appraisal

If you are in a falling vehicle heading toward the ground at 60 mph, your autonomic reaction would include heart racing and screaming. But if your cognitive appraisal says you are on a rollercoaster, then you have the emotion of “fun”

everyone say it loud

Everyone say it loud

Schacter – Two Factor

opponent process theory of emotion
Opponent Process Theory of Emotion
  • Have you ever felt crappy for a few days, then felt elated? This theory says feeling one way will lead you to feel the opposite.
  • How is this similar to the opponent process theory of color vision?
  • There are 2 stress hormones you need to know.
  • Cortisol and adrenaline
  • Cortisol does lead to weight gain.
seyle s general adaptation syndrome
Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Describes our response to a stressful event.
  • Three stages
  • Alarm
  • Resistance
  • Exhaustion
emotional expression
Emotional Expression

When culturally diverse people were shown six basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Paul Ekman 1989).

Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and

Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion


Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of

them are present in infancy, except for contempt,

shame, and guilt. Even blind children display these facial expressions.

Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow

Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank

Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank

Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit

paul ekman basis for lie to me
Paul Ekman – basis for Lie to Me
  • Paul Ekman studied emotions and facial expressions and found there are universal facial expressions. Lying and disgust are the same in the USA and Japan.
  • However, the display rules are different for collectivist cultures than individualist cultures. Chinese are not encouraged to display anger like Americans are.
cognition does not always precede emotion
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion

When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).

Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, Dartmouth


catharsis hypothesis
Catharsis Hypothesis

Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”

Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.

cultural gender differences
Cultural & Gender Differences
  • Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.
  • The expression of anger is more encouraged in individualistic cultures (USA) than in cultures that do promote group behavior (China, Japan)

Wolfgang Kaehler

predictors of happiness
Predictors of Happiness

Why are some people generally more happy than others?


1. Tyrone believes that there are some emotions that are universally expressed. He’s espousing the theory of _____

  • A. Freud
  • B. Plutchik
  • C. Ekman
  • D. Darwin
  • E. James

2. “We feel sorry because we cry” represents the theory of _____

  • A. James-Lange
  • B. Cannon-Bard
  • C. LeDoux
  • D. Schachter
  • E. Freud

3. “We cry when (at the same time) we notice we feel sorry inside and are involved in a sad situation” represents the theory of ______

  • A. James-Lange
  • B. Cannon-Bard
  • C. LeDoux
  • D. Schachter
  • E. Freud

4. Which of the following statements about cross-cultural comparisons of emotional experience is NOT true?

  • A. The types of events that trigger specific emotions are fairly similar across cultures.
  • B. The physiological reactions that accompany emotions tend to be similar across cultures
  • C. People of different cultures tend to categorize the emotions differently
  • D. All of the above statements are true.

5. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion:

  • A. the experience of emotion depends on autonomic arousal and on one’s cognitive interpretation of that arousal
  • B. different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions
  • C. emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex
  • D. Emotions develop because of their adaptive value

6. Which of the following statements is true?

  • A. For the most part, people are pretty happy.
  • B. Age is unrelated to happiness.
  • C. income is unrelated to happiness
  • D. All of the above are true.

7. Which theory of emotion implies that people can change their emotions simply by changing the way they label their arousal?

  • A. the James-Lange theory
  • B. Cannon Bard theory
  • C. Schachter’s two-factor theory
  • D. opponent-process theory.

8. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of the phases of the human sexual response?

a. Plateau, excitement, orgasm, resolution

b. Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

c. Plateau, excitement, resolution, orgasm

d. Excitement, plateau, resolution, orgasm


9. Which of the following factors stimulate us to eat?

a. Stomach contractions, high levels of glucose, and stimulation of the VMH

b. Stomach contractions, low levels of glucose, stimualtion of the LH.

c. Stomach contractions, low levels of glucose, stimulation of the VMH

d. Lack of cholecystokinin, high levels of insulin, and stimulation of the VMH


10. . The number one tennis player on last year’s squad does not find her name on the list of students who made this year’s team. Which stage of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome is she most likely experiencing?

a) alarm

b) resistance

c) denial

d) competence