Motivation and Emotion. Motivation. Instinct Theory : we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors. But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors. Drive Reduction Theory. Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS . Wants to maintain homeostasis.
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It comes from our…
What part of the brain?
When stimulated you feel full.
When lesioned you will never feel full again.
I’m late for lunch. I’m hungry. The lateral hypothalamus makes you hungry.
Fried Frog Legs
Criadillas- bull testicles.
Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.
After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight.
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender.
Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..)
Work great in the short run.
Where would one stand to practice if they had high achievement motivation?
Studies show that if you externally reward someone (excessively) for something they love doing, they will lose their intrinsic desire for doing it.
Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive.
Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.
If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing
brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.
Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/
The New York Times Pictures
Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
Physiologicalchange (heart rate, breathing)
If you are in a falling vehicle heading toward the ground at 60 mph, your autonomic reaction would include heart racing and screaming. But if your cognitive appraisal says you are on a rollercoaster, then you have the emotion of “fun”
Schacter – Two Factor
When culturally diverse people were shown six basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Paul Ekman 1989).
Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and
Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
them are present in infancy, except for contempt,
shame, and guilt. Even blind children display these facial expressions.
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow
Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank
Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank
Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).
Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, Dartmouth
Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”
Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
Why are some people generally more happy than others?
1. Tyrone believes that there are some emotions that are universally expressed. He’s espousing the theory of _____
3. “We cry when (at the same time) we notice we feel sorry inside and are involved in a sad situation” represents the theory of ______
4. Which of the following statements about cross-cultural comparisons of emotional experience is NOT true?
7. Which theory of emotion implies that people can change their emotions simply by changing the way they label their arousal?
8. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of the phases of the human sexual response?
a. Plateau, excitement, orgasm, resolution
b. Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
c. Plateau, excitement, resolution, orgasm
d. Excitement, plateau, resolution, orgasm
a. Stomach contractions, high levels of glucose, and stimulation of the VMH
b. Stomach contractions, low levels of glucose, stimualtion of the LH.
c. Stomach contractions, low levels of glucose, stimulation of the VMH
d. Lack of cholecystokinin, high levels of insulin, and stimulation of the VMH
10. . The number one tennis player on last year’s squad does not find her name on the list of students who made this year’s team. Which stage of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome is she most likely experiencing?