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PROPOSED HORTICULTURE (FRUITS) & IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY FOR KHABAT IRRIGATION PROJECT DEVELOPMENT ON THE GREATER ZAB RIVER BETWEEN IRAQ AND TURKEY By: Saddam Qahtan Waheed B. Sc. in Water Resources Engineering (2007) M. Sc. in Hydrological Engineering and Remote Sensing Techniques (2010) SWLRI \ NCWRM \ MoWR
INTRODUCTION • Increasing water demand for crop production and other uses (power generation, transport, industry, municipal, recreational, environmental, etc.) • Trans-boundary river and tributaries shared by more than one country • No bi-lateral agreement • Uncontrolled infrastructure development in neighboring countries; i.e. dams • Diverting water from some rivers originating in Iran
Total annual water in Tigers River (NCWRM, 2011) Annual Inflows of Tigris River
Total annual water in Euphrates River (NCWRM, 2011) Annual Inflows of Euphrates River
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To investigate the feasibility of using the whole irrigable land to grow cash crops. • To develop the area as orchards and construct trickle irrigation system in the area to conserve water. • To increase crop production then export part of the products and use the returns to import wheat.
MATERIALSAND METHODS The study involves the following activities: Calculating the benefit from Khabat irrigation project in the current status, Replacing the type of irrigation system from surface to trickle systems, Changing cropping pattern in the whole project to orchards, Calculating the benefits from the project after development, and Comparing the benefits from the project before and after development.
KHABAT IRRIGATION PROJECT • Location: Northern part of Iraq. • Total command area: 10,500 hectare • Total irrigated area: 3,000 hectare • Current irrigation systems: Surface irrigation systems • Average conveyance efficiency: 85 % • Average on-farm efficiency: 25 %
PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT • Upgrading irrigation practices • Changing the cropping patterns • RESULTING IN: Increasing ratio = = = 3.6 Cultivated area after development = Increasing ratio × old area = 3.6 × 3,000 = 10,800 hectare > (10,500 hectare);
ESPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS • The total cost of upgrading 10,500 ha. to trickle irrigation: • 10,500 × 3,500 = $36,750,000 • Economic life: 15 years • Maintenance costs: Estimated in 5% of total cost • Replacement of emitters and laterals every three years (30% of total cost) • The cost of planting 10,500 ha of orchards will be: 380 × 10,500 = $ 3,990,000. • Initial orchard production is after 3 years (2,600 kg/ha.)
ESPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS (cont…) • Maximum orchard production is at the 6th year (4,600 kg/ha) • Using fertilizers and herbicides, production expected to increase to 5,000 kg/ha in the 5th year; 5,200 kg/ha in the 6th year. • The yearly cost of fertilizes and herbicides is about ($35,000 + $43,000 = $78,000), • The operational cost of the trickle irrigation system: • Electrical power supply: requirement of about 204,940 kw/day ≈ $ 3,989,000
BENEFIT ANALYSIS BEFORE AND AFTER DEVELOPMENT • Calculate the benefit from the project before development: cost production versus selling • Calculate the production cost of each crop; • Calculate the benefits from the crops
- The net benefit of the project is $ 872,850. - The highest benefit of the crop type is the fruits orchards (1690 $/ha./year) and the lowest is barely (100 $/ha./year) Annual benefit from each crop type in $.
The benefit from the project after development was calculated by calculating all costs. • Total cost of the developing is a bank loan, it increases every year by 10% (compound interest). • The construction of new irrigation system can be covered after 10 years. Expected returns of the project after development
COMPARING THE BENEFITS • Net benefit , new system versus old system is about $ 84,892,500; • New system more beneficial than the old system by 6.5 times: • = ≈ 6.5 • Orchards are more beneficial than other crop types, but their returns start after three years. They also required water all year around. • By using new irrigation systems like trickle, sprinkle, or micro-sprinkler: • The irrigated area will be increased, • The number of farmers will increase and the migration reduced, • The import of orchard products will be reduced.
CONCLUSIONS • Due to the lack of water in Iraq in the last years many irrigation projects are suffering from that and the net irrigated areas were decreased to less than half. • The net irrigated area can be increased to three times by changing the irrigation systems from surface to trickle. • The net benefit from Khabat irrigation project in the current condition is $872,850 per year and after development is $84,892,500 per 15 year, $5,659,500 as average per year. • The net benefit from Khabat irrigation project after development is more than net benefit before the development by 6.5 times.