Engineering Project Management Civil Engineering Department
An-Najah National University Civil Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Construction Engineering and Management Nabil Dmaidi
Your Expectations of Me Be prepared Be on time Teach for full 50 minute period Fair grading system Front load the class work Do not humiliate students Practice golden rule Provide real world examples Make you think
Topics 1) Management Functions and introduction of construction project planning and scheduling 2)Construction scheduling techniques 3)Preparation and usage of bar charts 4)Preparation and usage of the Critical Path Method (CPM) 5)Preparation and usage of Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) 6)Issues relating to determination of activity duration 7)Contractual provisions relating to project schedules 8)Resource leveling and constraining 9)Time cost tradeoff 10)Schedule monitoring and updating. 11)Communicating schedule 12) Project control and earned value Control 13) claims, Safety and Quality control
Course Outline Introduction and definitions Float Analysis Importance of Scheduling The CPM Calculations Networks, Bar Charts, and Brief introduction on: Imposed Finish Date and Project Control and Earned Value Analysis Resource Allocation /Leveling other CPM Issues Time/Cost Trade-off Precedence Networks Updating Schedules Time-Scaled Logic Diagrams
What is the Project In order to understand project management, one must begin with the definition of a project. A project can be considered to be any series of activities and tasks that :. ● Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications ● Have defined start and end dates ● Have funding limits (if applicable) ● Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment) ● Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several functional lines)
OR ‘‘a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result’’
Successful project management can then be defined as having achieved the project objectives: ●Within Time ● Within Cost ● At the desired performance/Technology level ● While utilizing the assigned resources effectively and efficiently ● Accepted by the customer
What is Project Management Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.
The potential benefits from project management are: ● Identification of functional responsibilities ● Minimizing the need for continuous reporting ● Identification of time limits for scheduling ● Identification of a methodology for trade-off analysis. ● Measurement of accomplishment against plans
The above definition requires further comment. Classical management is usually considered to have five functions or principles: ● Planning ● Organizing ● Staffing ● Controlling ● Directing
Planning – Where the organization wants to be in the future and how to get there. Organizing – Follows planning and reflects how the organization tries to accomplish the plan. – Involves the assignment of tasks, grouping of tasks into departments, and allocation of resources.
Leading – The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organization's goals. – Creating a shared culture and values, communicating goals to employees throughout the organization, and infusing employees to perform at a high level. Controlling – Monitoring employees' activities, determining if the organization is on target toward its goals, and making corrections as necessary
Management Skills Conceptual Skill—the ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship between its parts. Human Skill—The ability to work with and through people. Technical Skill—Mastery of specific functions and specialized knowledge
Constraints of the project Project management is designed to manage or control company resources on a given activity, within time, within cost, and within performance. Time, cost, and performance are the constraints on the project.
Resources We have stated that the project manager must control company resources within time, cost, and performance. Most companies have six resources: ● Money ● Manpower ● Equipment ● Facilities ● Materials ● Information/technology
Actually, the project manager does notcontrol any of these resources directly, except perhaps money (i.e., the project budget). • Resources are controlled by the line managers. • The project manager is responsible for coordinating and integrating activities across multiple, functional lines. The integration activities performed by the project manager include:
● Integrating the activities necessary to develop a project plan ● Integrating the activities necessary to execute the plan ● Integrating the activities necessary to make changes to the plan
Planning and Scheduling • Planning and scheduling are two terms that are often thought of as synonymous • They are not! • Scheduling is just one part of the planning effort.
Project planning serves as a foundation for several • related functions such as cost estimating, scheduling, • and project control. • Project scheduling is the determination of the timing and sequence of operations in the project and their assembly to give the overall completion time
Planning is the process of determining how a project will be undertaken. It answers the questions: 1. “What” is going to be done, 2. “how”, 3. “where”, 4. By “whom”, and 5. “when” (in general terms: start and finish). Scheduling deals with “when” on a detailed level… See Figure 1 .
The Plan What How much when By whom where How Why Figure 1 . Planning and Scheduling
The Plan PMI defines project management plan as a ‘‘formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled”. The plan can include elements that has to do with scope, design and alternate designs, cost, time, finance, land, procurement, operations, etc.
WHY SCHEDUALE PROJECTS ? 1- To calculate the project completion. 2- To calculate the start or end of a specific activity. 3-To expose and adjust conflict between trades or subcontractor. 4- To predict and calculate the cash flow . 5-To evaluate the effect of changing orders ‘CH’ .
6- To improve work efficiency. 7- To resolve delay claims , this is important in critical path method ‘CPM’ discussed later.. 8- To serve as an effective project control tool .
The Tripod of Good Scheduling System • The Human Factor : A proficient scheduler or scheduling team. • 2. The Technology : A good scheduling computer system (software and hardware) • 3. The Management : A dynamic, responsive, and supportive management. • If anyone of the above three ‘‘legs’’ is missing, the system will fail.
Scheduling and project management Planning, scheduling, and project control are extremely important components of project management. project management includes other components : • cost estimating and management, • procurement, • project/contract administration, • quality management, • and safety management. • These components are all interrelated in different ways.
Quiz 1 • True or False: • There are no two projects that are identical • Every construction project needs a CPM schedule • Planning and scheduling are two names for the same function • The maintenance of a large office building is considered a project • The renovation of a large office building is considered a project • There is one standard way to break down the project into activities for the purpose of creating a schedule
DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION • A bar chart is ‘‘a graphic representation of project activities, shown in a time-scaled bar line with no links shown between activities’’ • The bar may not indicate continuous work from the start of the activity until its end. • or • Non continuous (dashed) bars are sometimes used to distinguish between real work (solid line) and inactive periods (gaps between solid lines)
Before a bar chart can be constructed for a project, the project must be broken into smaller, usually homogeneous components, each of which is called an activity, or a task. Item Activity M 10 Mobilization Bars ( Month or Year )
ADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS 1- Time-scaled 2- Simple to prepare 3- Can be more effective and efficient if CPM based - Still the most popular method 4- Bars can be dashed to indicate work stoppage. 5- Can be loaded with other information (budget, man hours, resources, etc.)
Bar Charts Loaded with More Info. Such as : budget, man hours and resources . 500$ 220$ 400$ 850$ 140$ 500$ 900$ 10 12 7 11 10 9 15
DISADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS • 1- Does not show logic • 2- Not practical for projects with too many activities • As a remedy, we can use bar charts to show: • 1. A small group of the activities (subset) • 2. Summary schedules
Quiz 2 • True or False: • The bar representing a 4-day activity is twice as long as a bar representing a 2-day activity in a bar chart • Bar chart method lost its applicability with the introduction of the Critical Path Method • Bars in a bar chart must be connected with relationship lines • A bar representing an activity in a bar chart may not be continuous • Bar charts and Gantt charts are two different methods. • Bar charts can be loaded with information other than the timeline of the project
DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION • A network is a logical and chronological graphic representation of the activities (and events) composing a project. • Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. • Two main formats are the arrow and precedence diagramming methods.
Two classic formats AOA: Activity on Arrow AON: Activity on Node Each task labeled with Identifier (usually a letter/code) Duration (in std. unit like days) There are other variations of labeling There is 1 start & 1 end event Time goes from left to right
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) 1. Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagram or (I-J) method (because activities are defined by the form node, I, and the to node, J) 2. Activities are represented by arrows. 3. Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities. 4. Can only show finish-to-start dependencies.
Basic Logic Patterns for Arrow Diagrams Node (Event) i Node (Event) j i Activity Name j j > i Each activity should have a unique i – j value (a) Basic Activity
A B 2 4 10 12 (b) Independent Activities A B 3 6 9 (c) Dependent Activities
4 A C 6 8 B 2 Activity C depends upon the completion of both Activities A & B (d) A Merge 6 B A 2 4 C 8 Activities B and C both depend upon the completion of Activity A (e) A Burst
12 18 A C 16 D B 14 20 Activities C and D both depend upon the completion of Activities A and B (f) A Cross
Example Draw the arrow network for the project given next.
Solution : B D 30 A E 50 10 20 40 C
Dummy activity (fictitious) * Used to maintain unique numbering of activities. * Used to complete logic, duration of “0” * The use of dummy to maintain unique numbering of activities.