Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management (Definition).
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Total Quality Management (Definition) Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
TQM system consists of: • Culture or Philosophy • Principles • Tools and Techniques
The Culture of TQM • The culture of the company has a major impact on the opportunities of TQM applying. • The applying of TQM requires a cultural change of the company. • The employees and managers have to be convinced about the importance of TQM. • If companies feel the necessity to change, and have the capacity to carry out the change, then TQM gets greater support and is easier to be implemented.
Principlesof TQM • Customer –Driven Quality • Top Management Commitment • Continuous Improvement • Employees Participation and Development • Treating Suppliers as Partners • Fast Response • Management by Facts • Design Quality and Prevention
Toolsand Techniques of TQM • Process Chart and Flow Chart • Pareto Analysis • The Ishikawa Diagram • Histogram Chart • Run Diagram and Correlation • Statistical Process Control (SPC) • Check Sheets • Quality Function Deployment (QFD) • Benchmarking
Total Quality Management Model – major features Teams Culture Process Customer Supplier Communication Systems Tools Commitment
Process (Customer-Supplier) 1.2 Understanding and building the quality chains • Throughout and beyond all organizations -manufacturing & service- there is a series of quality chains of customer and supplier. • The concept of internal and external customers/suppliers forms the core of total quality. • Failure to meet the requirements in any part of quality chain leads to yet more failure.
Process (Customer-Supplier) Meeting the requirements • the first item on the list of things to do is find out what requirements are. • If we are dealing with a customer/supplier relationship, the supplier must understand not only the needs of the customer but also the ability of his own organization to meet them. • Internal supplier/customer relationships are often the most difficult to manage in terms of establishing the requirements.
Process (Customer-Supplier) • To achieve quality throughout an organization, each person in the quality chain must interrogate every interface as follows: Customers: who are my immediate customers? what are their true requirements? how can I measure my ability to meet the requirements? Suppliers: who are my immediate suppliers? what are my true requirements?
Communication (internally & externally) 1.4 Quality starts with ‘Marketing’ • Marketing is responsible for determining the key characteristics that determine the suitability of the product or service in the eyes of the customer. • Excellent communication between customers and suppliers is the key to total quality. • Requirements must be communicated properly throughout the organization in the form of specifications which can be used as the basis for the design .
Commitment 2.2 Commitment and policy • TQM must start at the top with the chief Executive or equivalent. • The middle management must explain the principles of TQM to the people for whom they are responsible, and ensure that their own commitment is communicated. • The chief Executive must accept the responsibility for and commitment to a quality policy in which he must really believe. • Within each and every department of the organization at all levels, starting at the top, basic changes of attitude will be required to operate TQM.
Culture 2.3 Creating or changing the culture The culture within an organization is formed by a number of components: • Behaviors based on people interactions. • Norms resulting from working groups. • Dominant values adopted by the organization. • Rules of the game for getting on. • The climate. • Any organization needs a vision framework that includes its guiding philosophy, core values and beliefs and a purpose these should be combined into a mission.
Culture • The guiding philosophy drives the organization and is shaped by the leaders through their thoughts and actions. • The core values and beliefs represent the organization’s basic principles about what is important in business, its conduct, its social responsibility and its response to changes in the environment. • The purpose of the organization should be a development from the core values and beliefs and should quickly and clearly convey how the organization is to fulfill its role.
Systems 4.1 Quality planning Quality system design & requirements (according to ISO 9001:2000) Chapter 6 Quality system audit/review and self-assessment
Tools 7.1 Measurement and the Improvement cycle 7.2 The implementation of performance measurement systems 8.1 A systematic approach 8.2 Some basic tools and techniques 8.4 Statistical process control (SPC)
Teams 10.1 The quality function and the quality director or manager 10.2 Councils, Committees and teams 10.3 Quality Improvement teams