New Testament Background. Palestine in the Days of Jesus. Palestine in the Days of Jesus. Judea •Jerusalem •Bethlehem •Mt. of Olives Samaria Galilee •Nazareth •Capernaum. Palestine in the Days of Jesus.
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New Testament Background Palestine in the Days of Jesus
Palestine in the Days of Jesus Judea•Jerusalem •Bethlehem •Mt. of Olives Samaria Galilee •Nazareth •Capernaum
Palestine in the Days of Jesus Other Features:•Sea of Galilee •Jordan River •Dead Sea •Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea) •Decapolis •Caesarea Philippi
Question: • Take a few minutes and reflect on these questions, • What are the core issues/values in your life? • What can you not live without? • Maybe ask it this way, what defines your life?
Second Temple Judaism • Jesus is Lord defines the core of early Judaism as the Four Pillars of Judaism (pg. 65) • Monotheism • Election • Covenant • Land
Second Temple Judaism Let’s now examine those cultural/religious/political entities which make up what is commonly called: Second-Temple Judaism (Judaism in Jesus’ Day)
Second Temple Judaism • a. Torah • Law plus Oral Tradition
Second Temple Judaism • b. Temple • Holy building with compromised leaders
Temple (35 acres) Court of Gentiles Court of Israel Court of Women Holy of Holies Holy Place
“Culture Centers…” “… consist in the point or points in a society where its leading ideas come together with its leading institutions to create an arena in which the events that most vitally affect its members’ lives take place.” Clifford Geertz, Local Knowledge
Second Temple Judaism • c. Land • God’s Chosen people as Tenants
Second Temple Judaism • d. Messianic Hope • Davidic Messiah (Warrior-King) to Restore Land • Priestly Messiah to Restore Temple & Law
Religious / Political Groups • Pharisees (and scribes) • Primarily 1st half of Gospels. Jesus was a threat to their teaching • 2. Sadducees (and chief priests) • Primarily 2nd half of Gospels. Jesus was threat to the temple practices. • 3. Essenes • Qumran / Dead Sea (Maybe John the Baptist) • 4. Revolutionaries / Zealots • Simon the Zealot (maybe Judas Iscariot)
Religious / Political Groups 5. Samaratians Luke 10 / John 4 / Acts 1:8 6. Herodians Mark 3:6, 12:13 7. Sanhedrin / Jewish Ruling Council At trial of Jesus in Gospels At trials of Apostles in Book of Acts
Literature of the Jews 1. Old Testament / Hebrew Bible •Hebrew •Septuagint (LXX) 2. Rabbinic Writings •Talmud (Codification of the Oral Tradition) •Targums (Aramaic Translation of the OT) 3. Dead Sea Scrolls 4. Apocrypha