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  1. Old Testament Background Lesson 19: United Kingdom – King David: the good years

  2. The Good Years • David as King of Judah • David Anointed King of Judah • Moves to Hebron from Ziklag • Elders of Judah anoint him king • Philistines probably still thought of him as a faithful vassal/ally • Ishbaal Anointed King of Israel • “Ishbaal” changed to “Ishbosheth” by later scribes • Baal = Master • Bosheth = Shame • Abner survives the battle and sets up Ishbaal as king • Capital moved to Mahanaim due to Philistine domination Mahanaim ISRAEL PHILISTIA Ziklag Hebron JUDAH

  3. The Good Years • David as King of Judah • David and Ishbaal • David does not contest the anointing of Ishbaal as king of Israel • David does not attack Israel • Even when Ishbaal is killed David waits for the elders of Israel to come willingly under his reign (5 YEARS!) • David and Ambition • David was willing to wait on the Lord • David would not fight against his brothers to take power • David honored the choice of the northern tribes Mahanaim ISRAEL PHILISTIA Hebron JUDAH

  4. The Good Years • David as King of Judah • Battle at the Pool of Gibeon • Abner is clear agressor • Gibeon is on the border of Judah • Gibeon is the old capital • Joab goes out to meet him • Battle begun by Abners challenge • Abner and his forces defeated • Abner kills Asahel • Asahel is Joab’s little brother • Abner did not want to kill Asahel • The First Civil War • It was a “long” war • The house of David grew stronger • Abner grew stronger in the house of Saul ISRAEL Mahanaim Pool of Gibeon PHILISTIA Hebron JUDAH

  5. Pool of Gibeon

  6. The Good Years • David as King of Judah • The Fall of Saul’s House • The death of Abner • Abner defects to David • Joab murders Abner • David mournesAbner • The death of Ishbaal • Two lesser officials kill Ishbaal and bring his head to David • David puts them both to death • David refers to Ishbaal as “righteous” • Summary of his reign in Hebron • David reigned there 7 years • Took more wives and had children • Did not seek to expand his kingdom • Army continues to increase Mahanaim ISRAEL PHILISTIA Hebron JUDAH

  7. The Good Years DAN NAPHTALI ASHER • David as King of Israel • David anointed king of Israel • The leaders of Israel come to David • They make a covenant together • Additions to David’s Army • Judah – 6,800 Simeon – 7,100 • Levites – 8,300 Benjamin – 3,000 • Ephraim – 20,800 Manasseh – 18,000 • Zebulun – 50,000Naphtali – 38,000 • Dan – 28,600Asher – 40,000 • Issachar – 200 Chiefs (+ kinsmen) • Tribes East of Jordan – 120,000 • (Reuben, Gad, ½ Tribe of Manasseh) • Army was well over 300,000 strong! MANASSEH ZEBULUN ISSACHAR MANASSEH GAD EPHRAIM DAN BENJAMIN REUBEN JUDAH SIMEON

  8. The Good Years • David Establishes the Kingdom • The Philistines • Once again see David as an enemy • David crushes them in two battles • Philistines gathered in the valley of Rephaim both times • First Battle • David inquires of the LORD • David attacks and is victorious • Second Battle • David is told to wait until he hears marching in the trees then attack • David’s victory ends the time of Philistine domination • They continue as a people/land • Not fully conquered until Hezekiah ISRAEL Jerusalem PHILISTIA Hebron

  9. The Good Years • David Establishes the Kingdom • Jerusalem: the New Capital • Location • Central within the promised land • No previous tribal affiliation • Defensible with natural spring • Taking the City • David promises that whoever climbs the water “shaft” and takes the city will be made “chief and captain” • Joab does so and is made chief of David’s army • Establishing the City • David built up the defenses of the city • Joab rebuilt the city itself • King of Tyre builds David a palace ISRAEL Jerusalem PHILISTIA

  10. Threshing Floor of Arunah Gihon Spring PALACE MILLO

  11. The Good Years • David Establishes the Kingdom • Jerusalem: the chosen place • Biblical History • Genesis 14:8 – Abraham tithes to Melchizedek, king of “Salem” • Deuteronomy 12 – God will choose a city to establish his name for his dwelling • Judges 1:8 – Judah ‘captures’ Jerusalem • 2 Chronicles 3:1 – Reference to the temple mount as ‘Mt. Moriah’ links it to the mountain where Abraham nearly sacrificed Isaac in Genesis 22:2 • Jesus is crucified on the same mountain! • Implications for understanding Old Testament passages • When temple is built, all other high places become illegitimate • All kings weighed by whether they permitted other high places or not • Northern Israel eventually judged for not recognizing Jerusalem as chosen • Judah judged for having other high places in addition to Jerusalem

  12. The Good Years • David Establishes the Kingdom • Jerusalem: the chosen place • The ark brought to Jerusalem • David seeks approval from all of Israel before moving the ark • First attempt results in the death of Uzzah for touching the ark when it started to tip • Uzzah was not a Levite • David becomes angry with God and leaves the ark at the house of Obed-Edom • Ark resides in house of Obed-Edom • Obed-Edom is blessed • David consults the law • Ark brought to Jerusalem BY LEVITES • Michal criticizes David for dancing in joy before the ark • Michal may have had a critical spirit having enjoyed her other marriage • David and Michal never had children fulfilling the curse on Saul

  13. The Good Years • David Establishes the Kingdom • Jerusalem: the chosen place • The Temple of the LORD • David desires to build a temple • Convicted by the fact that he had a palace while the ark of God had a tent • God had never required or even asked for the building of a temple • This shows David’s heart of love for God • God promises to establish his throne forever • Jesus is a son of David! • David told that his son would build it since David was a man of blood • Dual Fulfillment • Solomon – 1 Kings 6 – 8, 2 Chronicles 3 – 7 • Jesus – Zechariah 6:9-13 and Hebrews 1:5 • David provided EVERYTHING for the construction of the temple

  14. The Good Years • David Expands the Kingdom • David has been mostly defensive • David’s Victories • Further presses the Philistines • Defeats Moab • Defeats Zobah • Defeats Syria • Friendship with Hamath • Defeats Syrians in the Valley of Salt • Possibly hired by Edomites • Greatly increased David’s reputation • Subdues Edom • Gold, silver and bronze gained in the conquests are used to build the temple Hamath Zobah Syria Tyre Philistia Ammon Moab Edom Amalekites

  15. The Good Years • David Expands the Kingdom • War with Ammon • King of Ammon, friendly to David, died • David sends friendly messengers to prince • Prince mistreats them saying they are spys • Ammon hires Syrians from beyond the River • David defeats them soundly • War with Philistines • Philistines continue a prolonged resistance • David continually defeats them • Goliath’s brothers are killed Hamath Zobah Syria Tyre Philistia Ammon Moab Edom Amalekites

  16. The Good Years • David Remembers Jonathan • Searches for any son of Jonathan • Seeks to pass on God’s kindness • “Is there not still someone of the house of Saul, to whom I may show the kindness of God?” 2 Samuel 9:3 • Once again demonstrating that he is a man after God’s own heart. • Kindness to Mephibosheth • Lame son of Jonathan • Inherited all the land of Saul • Ate at David’s table for the rest of his life • Great picture of us! ISRAEL Jerusalem PHILISTIA