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Managing Retailing, Wholesaling, and Logistics. Key Concepts. Marketing Management at Zara. Zara controls all aspects of its supply chain. Retailing. All of the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use. Types of Retailers.

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marketing management at zara
Marketing Management at Zara

Zara controls all aspects of its supply chain.


All of the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use.

types of retailers
Types of Retailers
  • Specialty store
  • Department store
  • Supermarket
  • Convenience store
  • Discount store
  • Off-price retailer
  • Superstore
  • Catalog showroom


retail concepts
Retail Concepts

Retail life-cycle

Stages of growth and decline.

Wheel-of-retailing hypothesis

New stores emerge after conventional stores increase services and raise prices to cover the cost.

levels of service



Limited service

Full service

Levels of Service
nonstore retailing

Direct selling

Direct marketing

Automatic vending

Buying service

Nonstore Retailing
the new retail environment
The New Retail Environment
  • Assortments have grown more alike
  • Differentiation has eroded
  • Limited-time-only “pop-up” outlets
  • Adding specialty products and customer-focused services
  • Growth in global competition
corporate retail organizations
Corporate Retail Organizations
  • Corporate chain store
  • Voluntary chain
  • Retailer cooperative
  • Consumer cooperative
  • Franchise organization
  • Merchandising conglomerate
retailer marketing decisions
Retailer Marketing Decisions
  • Target market
  • Product assortment and procurement
  • Price
    • High-markup, lower-volume
    • Low-markup, higher-volume
  • Services and store atmosphere
  • Store activities and experiences
  • Communications
  • Location
breakthrough marketing target
Breakthrough Marketing: TARGET

“Upscale discounter” image = $59 billion in annual sales!

marketing skills experience marketing
Marketing Skills: Experience Marketing

Enhance the sensory experience (feel, look, sound, smell, or taste).

private labels
Private Labels


Unbranded, plainly packaged, less expensive versions of common products.

Private label brand

One developed by retailers and wholesalers.


All the activities in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use.

major wholesaler types
Major Wholesaler Types
  • Merchant wholesaler
  • Full-service wholesaler
  • Limited-service wholesaler
  • Brokers and agents
  • Manufacturers’ and retailers’ branches and offices
  • Specialized wholesalers
how wholesalers differ from retailers
How Wholesalers Differ From Retailers
  • Pay less attention to promotion, atmosphere, and location
  • Transactions are usually larger and cover a larger trade area
  • Different legal regulations and taxes
what wholesalers do
What Wholesalers do
  • Selling and promoting
  • Buying and assortment building
  • Bulk breaking
  • Warehousing
  • Transportation
  • Financing
  • Risk bearing
  • Market information
  • Management services and counseling
trends in wholesaling
Trends in Wholesaling
  • Facing mounting pressures from:
    • New sources of competition
    • Demanding customers
    • New technologies
    • More direct-buying programs by large buyers
    • Manufacturers
  • Responses:
    • Revisiting decisions
    • Cutting costs
market logistics
Market Logistics

Supply chain management (SCM)

Starts before physical distribution, covering procurement of inputs, conversion into finished products, and product movement to final destinations.

Market logistics

Planning the infrastructure to meet demand, then implementing and controlling the physical flows of materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use to meet customer needs at a profit.

integrated logistics systems ils
Integrated Logistics Systems (ILS)

Include materials management, material flow systems, and physical distribution, aided by information technology.

market logistics decisions

Order processing




Market-Logistics Decisions