reproductive anatomy ch 27 n.
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Reproductive Anatomy Ch. 27. Male Reproduction. The Testes. Each testis is surrounded by two tunics tunica vaginalis tunica albuginea Septa divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules Seminiferous tubules  Produce sperm

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the testes
The Testes
  • Each testis is surrounded by two tunics
    • tunica vaginalis
    • tunica albuginea
  • Septa divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules
  • Seminiferous tubules 
    • Produce sperm
    • Interstitial cells between tubules produce androgens
  • Tubulus rectus 
  • Rete testis 
After leaving the testes sperm go to
  • Efferent ductules 
  • Epididymis 
  • Ductus (vas) deferens 
    • Site of vasectomy
  • Ejaculatory duct 
  • and finally the Urethra
  • Sac of skin and superficial fascia
  • Hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis
  • Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septum
  • Keeps the testes ~3C lower than core body temperature
    • Position held by cremaster and dartos muscles
the penis
The Penis
  • Copulatory organ
  • Designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
  • Attached root and free shaft, ending in glans penis
  • Prepuce (foreskin)
    • Skin covering the distal end of the penis
    • Circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin after birth
the penis1
The Penis

Figure 27.4

Internal penis
  • Part of the urethra
  • 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue
    • spongy network of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and vascular spaces
Corpus spongiosum
    • surrounds urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of the penis
  • Corpora cavernosa
    • paired dorsal erectile bodies
accessory glands
Accessory Glands

Empty secretions into ducts that combine with sperm to form semen

  • Seminal vesicles
  • Prostate gland
  • Bulbourethral glands
1 seminal vesicles
1. Seminal Vesicles
  • Lie on the posterior wall of the bladder
  • Secretes 60% of the volume of semen
  • Join the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct
  • Sperm and seminal fluid mix in the ejaculatory duct 
  • Enter the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
2 prostate gland
2. Prostate Gland
  • Doughnut-shaped gland that encircles part of the urethra, inferior to the bladder
  • Accounts for 33% of the semen
  • Milky, slightly acid fluid
  • Contains citrate, various enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  • Plays a role in the activation of sperm
  • Enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
3 bulbourethral cowper s glands
3. Bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands
  • Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate
  • Produce thick, clear mucus prior to ejaculation
  • Provides a transport medium, nutrients, protection for and activates sperm
  • Viscous, alkaline fluid
    • Neutralizes the acid environment found in the male urethra and female vagina
  • Fructose + ascorbic acid provide nutrients for sperm
  • Prostaglandins
    • Decrease the viscosity of mucus in the cervix
    • Stimulates reverse peristalsis in the uterus
  • Relaxin hormone enhances sperm motility
  • Seminalplasmin acts as an antibiotic
  • Clotting factors + enzymes (vesiculase) coagulate semen immediately after ejaculation 
  • Then fibrinolysin liquefies the sticky mass
  • The propulsion of semen from the male duct system
  • At ejaculation, SNS cause:
    • Reproductive ducts and accessory organs to contract and empty their contents
    • The bladder sphincter muscle to constrict, preventing the expulsion of urine
    • Bulbospongiosus muscles to undergo a rapid series of contractions
    • Propulsion of semen from the urethra
  • Surrounded by
    • fibrous tunica albuginea
    • covered germinal epithelium
female reproductive anatomy
Female Reproductive Anatomy
  • Ovaries
    • Make female gametes (ova)
    • Secrete female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
  • Accessory ducts include uterine/fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
  • External genitalia – external sex organs
the ovaries
The Ovaries

Figure 27.14a

  • Follicles embedded in cortex
  • Each follicle consists of an immature oocyte
  • Cells around the oocyte are called:
    • Follicle cells
    • Granulosa cells
  • Primordial follicle – one layer of squamous-like follicle cells surrounds the oocyte
  • Primary follicle – two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells enclose the oocyte
  • Secondary follicle – fluid-filled space between granulosa cells that coalesces to form a central antrum
  • Graafian follicle – secondary follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
  • Ovulation – ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle
  • Corpus luteum – ruptured follicle after ovulation
uterine tubes fallopian tubes and oviducts
Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes) and Oviducts
  • Receives ovulated oocyte
  • Site for fertilization
  • Oocyte moves into peritoneal cavity
  • Grasped by beating fimbriae of the infundibulum in the tube’s ampulla
  • Moves through tubes via peristalsis and ciliary action
  • Empties it into superolateral region of uterus, via the isthmus
  • Hollow, thick-walled organ located in the pelvis anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder
  • Body – major portion of the uterus
  • Fundus – rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
  • Isthmus – narrowed region between the body and cervix
  • Cervix – narrow neck which projects into the vagina inferiorly
uterine wall
Uterine Wall
  • Composed of three layers
    • Perimetrium
      • outermost serous layer; the visceral peritoneum
    • Myometrium
      • middle layer; interlacing layers of smooth muscle
    • Endometrium
      • mucosal lining of the uterine cavity
      • glandular
uterine wall1
Uterine Wall

Figure 27.15b

  • Thin-walled tube lying between the bladder and the rectum, extending from the cervix to the exterior of the body
  • The urethra is embedded in the anterior wall
  • Provides a passageway for birth, menstrual flow, and is the organ of copulation
external genitalia vulva pudendum
External Genitalia: Vulva (Pudendum)
  • Lies external to the vagina and includes the mons pubis, labia, clitoris, and vestibular structures
  • Mons pubis – round, fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
  • Labia majora – elongated, hair-covered, fatty skin folds homologous to the male scrotum
  • Labia minora – hair-free skin folds lying within the labia majora; homologous to the ventral penis

Figure 27.16

external genitalia vulva pudendum1
External Genitalia: Vulva (Pudendum)
  • Greater vestibular glands
    • Pea-size glands flanking the vagina
    • Homologous to the bulbourethral glands
    • Keep the vestibule moist and lubricated
external genitalia vulva pudendum2
External Genitalia: Vulva (Pudendum)
  • Clitoris (homologous to the penis)
    • Erectile tissue hooded by the prepuce
    • The exposed portion is called the glans
  • Perineum
    • Diamond-shaped region between the pubic arch and coccyx
    • Bordered by the ischial tuberosities laterally