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Female Reproductive Anatomy. The reproductive organs found outside the body are called genitals. These organs are collectively called the vulva: Mons pubis Labia majora (outer lips) Labia minora (inner lips) Clitoris Vaginal opening Urinary opening. Parts of the vulva.

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The reproductive organs found outside the body are called genitals.

  • These organs are collectively called the vulva:
    • Mons pubis
    • Labia majora (outer lips)
    • Labia minora (inner lips)
    • Clitoris
    • Vaginal opening
    • Urinary opening
parts of the vulva
Parts of the vulva
  • Mons pubis: Fatty tissue under the skin that covers the point where the pelvic bones come together.
  • Labia majora: 2 folds of skin that cushion and protect the vaginal and urinary openings.
  • Labia minora: 2 smaller, folds of skin lying within the labia majora
  • Clitoris: Located under the labia minora. Only known function is sexual pleasure.
females have 3 openings in the genital area
Females have 3 openings in the genital area
  • Urinary opening: opening of the urethra, where urine leaves the body.
  • Vaginal opening: larger opening located between the urinary opening and the anus. Menstrual fluid and babies leave the body through this opening. Also where penis would enter during sexual intercourse.
    • Hymen: Thin tissue membrane that stretches across the vaginal opening.
  • Anus: where a bowel movement leaves the body.
inside the body
Inside the body
  • Vagina: (birth canal) muscular tunnel about 3-4 inches long. It extends from the opening of the uterus to the external opening in the vulva.
    • Does 3 things:
      • Provides a way for menstrual fluid to leave a woman’s body.
      • Receives the man’s penis during sexual intercourse.
      • Provides a way for the baby to be born.
  • Uterus: (womb) One of the strongest muscles in the body. It provides a safe and nourishing place where a fertilized egg can grow and develop into a baby.
    • About the size of a fist, shaped like an upside down pear.
inside the body1
Inside the body
  • Cervix: bottom part of the uterus that dips into the vagina.
    • The cervix opening is about the diameter of a pencil lead, but can stretch during childbirth to approximately 8 inches.
  • Fallopian tubes: thread like tubes that come out of each side of the uterus. An egg travels from the ovary through a fallopian tube into the uterus.
    • If a sperm joins with an egg, it happens in one of the fallopian tubes, and then the fertilized egg continues on to the uterus.
inside the body2
Inside the body
  • Ovaries: produce female hormones called estrogen and progesterone and holds eggs.
    • Size and shape of an unshelled almond (1 ½ in long)
    • An egg is as small as the point of a needle
  • Ovum: the egg
  • Endometrium: lining of the uterus. Part of this lining is shed during menstruation if pregnancy does not occur.
  • Occurs during puberty, somewhere between ages 9 and 16 for most girls.
  • Menstrual cycle may vary from 22 to 40 days.
  • Woman menstruate typically until the age of 45-55, when she reaches menopause.
  • In every menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus grows thicker to support the possible implantation and development of a fertilized egg. Most of the time, pregnancy doesn’t occur, so the lining is shed during the menstrual period.
menstrual cycle s 4 stages
Menstrual cycle’s 4 stages
  • Stage1: Menstruation, bleeding occurs. The lining of the uterus flows out of the body through the vagina.
    • Periods usually last about 3-7 days.
    • The amount of fluid is about a quarter cup.
    • 1st day of a woman’s period is day 1 of her menstrual cycle.
  • Stage 2: An egg ripens in an ovary.
    • Begins when a woman’s period stops.
    • The lining begins to thicken.
    • This takes 6-12 days or more.
menstrual cycle s 4 stages1
Menstrual cycle’s 4 stages
  • Stage 3: Ovulation. The midpoint of the cycle.
    • A mature egg is released into the fallopian tube.
    • A woman is most likely to become pregnant.
    • Ovulation occurs 13 to 15 days before a woman’s next period.
    • The lining of the uterus is ready to support the implanting of a fertilized egg.
menstrual cycle s 4 stages2
Menstrual cycle’s 4 stages
  • Stage 4: The egg travels to the uterus.
    • Lasts about 14 days.
    • The uterus is ready to receive a fertilized egg. It takes the egg 5-6 days to reach the uterus.
    • If the egg has been fertilized, it attaches to the thick, blood-filled lining of the uterus and begins to grow. (the start of pregnancy)
    • If pregnancy does not occur, the menstrual period will begin again.
outside the body
Outside the body
  • The genitals are located outside the body.
  • Penis: used for urination and is inserted in the vagina during sexual intercourse.
    • Contains no bones or muscles.
  • Scrotum: bag of skin that holds the two testicles.
    • Layers of muscle fibers contract when temperature changes, which is important because sperm production happens best at a temperature a few degrees cooler than normal body temperature.
inside the body3
Inside the body
  • Testicles: produce male hormones (testosterone), which allows males to make sperm, and have interest in sex. It also causes the growth of facial hair and deepening of the voice.
    • It is normal for one testicle to hang lower than the other.
    • It’s also normal for one testicle to be slightly larger.
  • Epididymis: where sperm mature and develop the ability to swim.
inside the body4
Inside the body
  • Vas deferens: mature sperm move into the vas deferens to be stored until ejaculation.
  • Seminal vesicles: produces a sticky, yellow liquid called seminal fluid, which makes up about 70% of semen.
    • Gives the sperm energy and helps them move and survive in the female reproductive tract.
  • Prostate gland: secretes a thin, milky fluid that makes up about 30% of the semen.
    • Helps sperm swim and protects them in the acidic environment of the female vagina.
inside the body5
Inside the body
  • Urethra: carries both urine and semen out of the body, but never at the same time.
    • Runs the length of the penis.
    • During sexual arousal, a valve, or sphincter, closes off the bladder so urine cannot pass through the urethra.
sperm facts
Sperm facts
  • Sperm are produced at an average rate of 1,500 per second per testicle.
  • Because sperm are so tiny, they account for only 1/10 of the volume of semen.
  • The average ejaculation consists of about 1 teaspoon of semen, which contains 200 to 500 million sperm.
  • Sperm can live in a man’s body for up to 6 weeks.
  • Men cannot run out of sperm, as long as they have one normal testicle
myths debunked
Myths Debunked
  • Douching doesn’t prevent pregnancy
  • You can get pregnant without orgasm
  • Stand-ups don’t stop sperm
  • Pregnancy and periods can mix
Pulling out is no protection
    • The pre-ejaculatory fluid produced by the Cowper’s glands may pick up sperm left inside the urethra from previous ejaculations.
    • Might not be able to control or properly predict ejaculation