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Chapter 5 Immune System Diseases and Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 5 Immune System Diseases and Disorders
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  1. Chapter 5Immune System Diseases and Disorders

  2. Anatomy and Physiology • Organs • Thymus gland • Bone marrow • Lymph nodes • Spleen • Liver • Tonsils

  3. Anatomy and Physiology • Types of Immunity • Active natural • Active artificial • Passive natural • Passive artificial

  4. Common Signs and Symptoms • Symptoms varied and related to factors such as: • Immunodeficiency - lack of immunity • Autoimmune - immunity against self • Isoimmune - immunity against other humans

  5. Diagnostic Testing • Skin tests • Desensitization • Blood count • Coombs’ test • ANA, RF

  6. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Allergies • Examples - hay fever, asthma • Common reactions - urticaria and contact dermatitis

  7. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Allergies • Symptoms: • Elevated eosinophil count • Redness, heat, swelling, itching • Runny nose, cough, sneezing, wheezing, nasal congestion

  8. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Hay fever • Reaction in mucous membranes of nose and upper respiratory tract to an allergen • Symptoms - sneezing, watery eyes, runny nose, itching

  9. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Hay fever • Causes of seasonal - tree pollen, grasses, ragweed pollen, agricultural crops • Causes of nonseasonal - dust mites, pet dander, food allergies

  10. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Treatment • Removal of allergen • Air-conditioned environment or move to different climate • Antihistamines • Allergy desensitization

  11. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Asthma • Aka bronchial asthma • Symptoms: • Extreme shortness of breath • Difficulty breathing • Wheezing, anxiety, cough

  12. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Asthma • Treatment: • Avoidance of causative allergens • Desensitization • Education • Medication • No cure but can be controlled

  13. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Anaphylaxis • Severe allergic response to an allergen • Common causes - antibiotics, anesthetics, codeine, insulin, vaccines, foods, pollens, latex, etc.

  14. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Anaphylaxis • May be mild to life threatening • Symptoms: • Itching of throat, tongue, and scalp • Edema of face and airways leading to difficulty breathing

  15. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Treatment • Emergency tracheostomy • Epinephrine • Corticosteroids • Antihistamines

  16. Hypersensitivity Disorders • Food Allergies • Chocolate and shellfish are common • Symptoms: • Cramping • Diarrhea • Vomiting

  17. Contact Dermatitis • Acute or chronic allergic skin reaction • Causes - cosmetics, laundry products, plants, jewelry, paint, drugs • Common example - poison ivy

  18. Autoimmune Disorders • Rheumatic Fever • Follows group A strep infection • Occurs 1 to 4 weeks after strep infection; onset is either sudden or gradual • Symptoms: fever, malaise, joint pain • Accurate diagnosis of strep infections best preventive measure

  19. Autoimmune Disorders • Rheumatoid Arthritis • Abnormal antibody that attacks or attaches to body’s own cells and tissues • Antibody called rheumatoid factor (RF) in blood is indicative of disease • Classic sign is ulnar deviation • Progressive disease

  20. Autoimmune Disorders • Rheumatoid Arthritis • Treatment • Anti-inflammatory medications • Analgesics • Exercise and rest routine • Corticosteroids short term • Surgical joint replacement

  21. Autoimmune Disorders • Myasthenia Gravis • Onset is slow • Symptoms • Diplopia • Ptosis • Dysphagia

  22. Autoimmune Disorders • Myasthenia Gravis • Symptoms • Dysphonia • Difficulty with facial expressions • Fatigue

  23. Autoimmune Disorders • Myasthenia Gravis • Periods of remission and exacerbation • Treatment • Mestinon • Plasma exchange

  24. Autoimmune Disorders • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus • Formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus • Alters carbohydrate or sugar metabolism • Triggered by viral infections such as rubella, mumps, and influenza

  25. Lupus Erythematosus • Two types - cutaneous (discoid) and systemic (diffuse) • Cutaneous is limited to the skin • Systemic affects multiple systems • Symptoms of SLE: • Butterfly rash, joint pain, fever, weight loss

  26. Autoimmune Disorders • Systemic Erythematosus • SLE is chronic with remissions and exacerbations

  27. Autoimmune Disorders • Systemic Erythematosus • Treatment is symptomatic: • NSAIDS • Antipyretics • Analgesics • Corticosteroids

  28. Autoimmune Disorder • Scleroderma • Hardening, thickening, and shrinking of connective tissues, including the skin • Periods of exacerbation and remission • Symptoms • Thick, leather-like shiny taut skin, joint contractures, Raynaud’s phenomenon

  29. Testing for Infection • Symptoms • Fever • Tachycardia • Malaise • Leukocytosis • Septicemia

  30. Testing for Infection • Tests • Culture • Sensitivity • Antigen-antibody reactive test • Serologic testing • Skin testing

  31. Autoimmune Disorders • No cure or treatment • May use antibiotics, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory • Muscle stretching and strengthening exercises may be beneficial

  32. Isoimmune Disorders • Blood Transfusion Reaction • Type of tissue transplant • Type O is universal blood donor • Type AB is the universal recipient • Symptoms of transfusion • Chills, shivering, fever

  33. Isoimmune Disorders • Erythroblastosis Fetalis • Mother’s antibodies attack and destroy antigen on baby’s RBCs, ultimately causing death • Usually no problem with first baby of Rh negative mother and Rh positive baby

  34. Isoimmune Disorders • Erythroblastosis Fetalis • Condition only affects Rh positive babies carried by Rh negative mothers

  35. Isoimmune Disorders • Erythroblastosis Fetalis • Treatment is transfusion of baby’s blood at birth • RhoGAM has halted this condition • RhoGAM is given prophylactically after delivery of first fetus

  36. Organ Rejection • Human immune system attacks transplanted tissue • More closely matched donor decreases chance of rejection • Acute rejection occurs early • Chronic rejection occurs over longer period

  37. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Inability of immune system to protect individual against disease • Congenital, genetic disorder, or acquired • Causes include: • Bone marrow suppression from chemotherapy and radiation

  38. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Causes include: • Medications given to organ transplant recipients • AIDS

  39. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • Human immunodeficiency virus • Eradicates individual’s lymphocytes

  40. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • Stages: • Acute infection • Asymptomatic HIV • Symptomatic HIV

  41. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Advanced HIV • Anti-viral medications such as AZT may slow HIV replication and disease progress

  42. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Transmission of AIDS • Intimate contact and sharing body fluids • Virus must enter bloodstream to cause infection

  43. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Transmission of AIDS • Misconceptions about transmission: • Cannot get from toilet seats, doorknobs, furniture, water fountains, social kissing, coughing, or sneezing

  44. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Three ways AIDS is primarily spread • Sexual intercourse • Sharing of hypodermic needles • In utero from infected mother to unborn baby

  45. Immune Deficiency Disorders • Rare Diseases • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease • Group of inherited disorders that cause partial or complete dysfunction of immune system