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Macromolecules. Carbohydrate ― polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones sugars: monosaccharides & disaccharides e.g. glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Macromolecules

Carbohydrate ― polyhydroxyaldehydes and ketones

sugars: monosaccharides & disaccharides

e.g. glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose

polysaccharides: e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose

Lipids ― soluble in nonpolar solvents

fatty acid esters ― steroids ― prostaglanidns ― leukotrienes

Protein ― polymers of amino acids

enzymes ― transporters ― receptors ― immunoglobulins etc.

Nucleic Acid ― polymers of nucleotides

DNA: determines sequence RNA

RNA: determines sequence of cellular proteins

regulates gene expression

slide2

Structure

PROTEINS

Polymers of Amino Acids

DNA (gene)

mRNA

Protein

sequence

YMGCFTSSGLIVVEHY...

Function

nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS

polymers of nucleotides

DNA

RNA

encodes genetic

information

has both functional & informational roles

in gene expression

Genes code for Cell’s Proteins

nucleotides
NUCLEOTIDES

Base: Adenine, Guanine,

Thymine (Uracil), Cytosine

Sugar: Ribose or deoxy-ribose

Phosphates: 1-3 via phosphate ester bonds

nucleoside = base + sugar

slide5

Nucleic Acid Bases

Adenine

CH3

Guanine

Uracil

Thymine

Cytosine

slide6

Purine Ring

N

N

6

7

4

5

N

1

5

8

3

2

N

4

9

N

2

6

3

1

N

Pyrimidine Ring

slide7

N2

NH3 or NO3-

soil bacteria

plants

anabolic

1

Protein

N - Cpds

includes purine &

pyrimidine bases

Amino acids

slide8

Protein

Glucose

Ribose-5-P

Pyruvate

bases

RNA

AcetylCoA

Nucleotides

DNA

NADH

C6

C4

FADH2

ADP

Krebs

Cycle

C5

C4

ATP

O2

Amino Acids

slide9

4

N

5

3

C

C

C

C

2

6

1

N

O O

|| ||

H2N - C - O - P - O

|

O

Pyrimidine Ring

Aspartate

carbamoyl

phosphate

slide10

N

6

7

N

5

1

8

C

C

C

C

C

2

4

9

3

N

N

Purine Ring

Glycine

CO2

Aspartate

Glutamine

tetrahydrofolate

slide11

Uracil

H2N

N

N

N

CH3

O

O

O

N

N

N

Cytosine

O

O

H

H

Thymine

Pyrimidines

slide12

N

N

H2N

N

N

N

N

Guanine

N

N

Adenine

O

H

H2N

Purines

slide13

OH

HO

5

O

1

4

3

2

HO

OH

ribose - RNA

Nucleotide Sugars

2-deoxyribose - DNA

slide14

Cytidine: a nucleoside

H2N

O

N

O

O - P -

O

O

O - P -

O

HO

O

N

dCDP

HO

OH

deoxycytidine

dCMP

slide15

This structure is ….

a) a purine

b) a nucleoside

c) a nucleotide

d) DNA

Base

Phosphate

This nucleotide is….

a) adenine monophosphate

b) guanine monophosphate

c) guanosine monophosphate

d) AMP

Sugar

This structure contains ….

a) ribose

b) 2´ deoxyribose

c) 3´ deoxyribose

d) a hemiacetal functional group

Phosphate ester bonds are also found in

a) phosphoglycerides

b) activated phosphorylase

c) both

d) neither

This bond indicated by the ↓ is …

a) covalent b) phosphate ester

c) both d) neither

slide16

Nucleic Acid Bases

Adenine

CH3

H

Guanine

Uracil

Thymine

Cytosine

slide17

Structure

Nucleotides

& DNA

DNA (gene)

mRNA

Protein

sequence

YMGCFTSSGLIVVEHY...

Function

slide18

O

||

-O - P -

|

O_

O

||

O - P -

|

O_

O

||

O - P -

|

O_

A

|

O

O

3

3 hydroxyl

OH

5 phosphate

O-

|

-O - P -

||

O

O-

|

O - P -

||

O

O-(H+)

|

O - P -

||

O

C

|

O

5

O

OH

Phosphodiester bond formation

slide19

O

||

-O - P -

|

O_

O

||

O - P -

|

O_

O

||

O - P -

|

O_

A

|

O

O

C

|

O

O

||

-O - P -

|

O_

O

||

O - P - O-

|

O_

O

O

3-5 phosphodiester

bond

OH

Phosphodiester bond formation dinucleotide

5’ end

|

_ O - P -

|

O_

3’ end

slide20

P-P-P C

S

P

G

S

P

A

S

P

T

S

P

T

S

OH

5

3

1950 erwin chargaff
1950 ―Erwin Chargaff

In DNA isolated from any species

# A = # T & # G = # C

A-T : G-C ratio varies

1953 ― Franklin and Wilkins ― Watson & Crick

DNA has double helix structure

Bases paired in center A=T & GC

Complementary strands progress in opposite directions.

5’- C G A T T C AG C - 3’

3’- G C T A AG T C G - 5’

slide22

G

S

P

3

5

C

S

P

P-P-P C

S

P

T

S

P

G

S

P

A

S

P

A

S

P

P-P-P A

S

P

T

S

P

T

S

P

5

3

slide23

N

H2N

N

N

N

N

CH3

CH3

CH3

N

N

O

O

O

N

N

N

O

O

O

H

H

H

Thymine

Thymine

Thymine

A

slide24

N

H2N

N

N

CH3

N

N

O

N

O

H

A

T

slide26

N

NH2

H2N

N

N

X

N

N

O

N

X

A

C

slide28

N

N

NH2

N

N

N

N

O

O

H

H2N

G

C

slide31

Can’t have 2 pyrimidines paired :

too far apart for H-bonds

o

11 A

C

T

2 purines don’t fit inside helix

slide32

DNA

double helix

B Form

minor

groove

major

groove

slide33

N

N

N

N

CH3

N

N

O

N

O

H

A

H

H

T

slide34

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

O

O

H

N

H

H

G

H

H

C

slide35

Gene Expression

DNA (gene)

mRNA

Polypeptide chain

Folded polypeptide

Functional protein

slide36

1

N

N

CH3

HO

CH3

O

O

N

N

O

enol

10,000 or

104

H

keto

Thymine has an equilibrium between

keto & enol forms

slide37

OH

H3C

N

H2N

N

N

X

N

N

O

N

X

A

T (enol)

slide38

OH

H3C

N

N

N

N

N

O

N

O

H

H2N

G

T (enol)

slide39

G

S

P

3

5

C

S

P

P-P-PC

S

P

T

S

P

T

G

S

P

A

S

P

G

S

P

P-P-PA

S

P

G

T

S

P

T

S

P

5

3

DNA Pol has proof

reading capability

There is a DNA repair system in place in cells to repair DNA structural anomalies that Arise due to replication errors or DNA damage

If a cell cannot keep up with DNA repair – apoptosis (programmed cell death) pathways should prevent cell growth and division.

slide40

DG = DH - TDS

dsDNA ↔ ssDNA

Which form is favored at elevated

temperatures? Why?

a) dsDNA

b) ssDNA

c) the equilibrium will not change with T

slide41

ssDNA

A=T rich

GC rich

dsDNA

dsDNA ↔ ssDNA

Lower A260 higher A260

A260

40 50 60 70 80

T (ºC)

slide42

DNA

double helix

B Form

minor

groove

major

groove

slide43

DNA forms supercoils

Example shown is bacterial plasmid DNA

Supercoiling compacts DNA to take up less space

The structural form of DNA influences expression

DNA forms supercoils

Example shown is bacterial plasmid DNA

Supercoiling compacts DNA to take up less space

The structural form of DNA influences expression

nucleosomes dna wrapped around a histone core structure
NucleosomesDNA wrapped around a histone core structure

Eukaryotic DNA forms chromosome structures

These contain DNA binding protein called histones