AP World History Mr. Pitz - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP World History Mr. Pitz

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  1. AP World HistoryMr. Pitz Chapter 2 Mesopotamia & the Indo-European Migrations

  2. Civilization Defined • Urban • Political/military system • Social stratification • Economic specialization • Religion • Communications • “Higher culture” Clay tablet writing

  3. Mesopotamia • “Between the Rivers” • Tigris and Euphrates • Modern-day Iraq • Cultural continuum of “fertile crescent” • Sumerians the dominant people Early Mesopotamia 3000-2000 BCE

  4. The Wealth of the Rivers • Nutrient-rich silt • Key: irrigation • Necessity of coordinated efforts • Promoted development of local governments • City-states • Sumer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 B.C.E. • By 5000 B.C.E., complex irrigation networks • Population reaches 100,000 by 3000 B.C.E. • Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture Silt from flood waters

  5. Sumerian City-States • Cities appear 4000 B.C.E. • Dominate region from 3200 to 2350 B.C.E. • Ziggurat home of the god • Uruk • Irrigation systems • Defense from nomadic marauders • Absolute monarchies Ziggurat

  6. The Ziggurat of Ur Remains of the Ziggurat of Ur

  7. Political Decline of Sumer • Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia overshadow Sumer • Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 B.C.E.) • Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one, created empire based in Akkad • Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions • Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 B.C.E.) • Improved taxation, legislation • Used local governors to maintain control of city-states • Babylonian empire later destroyed by Hittites from Anatolia, ca. 1595 B.C.E.

  8. Sargon- King of Assad

  9. Legal System • Code of Hammurabi – 282 Laws • Established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators • Lextalionis – “law of retaliation” • Social status and punishment

  10. Later Mesopotamian Empires • Weakening of central rule an invitation to foreign invaders • Assyrians use new iron weaponry • Beginning 1300 B.C.E., by eighth to seventh centuries B.C.E. controlled Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of Egypt • Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes advantage of internal dissent to create Chaldean (New Babylonian) empire • Famously luxurious capital

  11. Mesopotamian Empires, 1800-600 B.C.E. Assyrian, Babylonian and Hittite Empires

  12. Technological Development in Mesopotamia • Bronze (copper with tin), 4000 B.C.E. • Military, agricultural applications • Iron, 1000 B.C.E. • Cheaper than bronze • Wheel, boats, 3500 B.C.E. • Shipbuilding increases trade networks (Phoenicians)

  13. Social Classes • Ruling classes based often on military prowess • Perceived as offspring of gods • Religious classes • Role: intervention with gods to ensure good fortune for community • Considerable landholdings, other economic activities • Free commoners • Peasant cultivators • Some urban professionals • Slaves • Prisoners of war, convicted criminals, debtors

  14. Patriarchal Society • Men as landowners, decision makers • Patriarchy: “rule of the father” • Right to sell wives, children • Double standard of sexual morality • Women drowned for adultery • Relaxed sexual mores for men • Yet some possibilities of social mobility for women • Court advisers, temple priestesses, economic activity • Introduction of the veil at least 1500 B.C.E.

  15. Development of Writing • Sumerians experiment with pictographs • 2900 B.C.E. Sumerians create writing system • Cuneiform: “wedge-shaped” • Preservation of documents on clay • Declined 400 B.C.E. with spread of Greek alphabetic script Sumerian Pictograph Cuneiform writing

  16. Early Uses for Writing • Trade • Astronomy • Mathematics • Agricultural applications • Calculation of time • 12-month year • 24-hour day, 60-minute hour

  17. Mesopotamian Literature • Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 B.C.E. • Heroic saga • Search for meaning, especially the afterlife • This-worldly emphasis

  18. The Early Hebrews • According to Hebrew scripture, Abraham migrated to northern Mesopotamia 1850 B.C.E. • Scriptures state Hebrews under Moses go to Palestine, 1300 B.C.E. • On-going conflict with local populations • King David (1000-970 B.C.E.) and Solomon (970-930 B.C.E.) King Solomon's Temple

  19. Moses and Monotheism • Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of other Mesopotamian civilizations • Moses introduced monotheism, belief in single god • Denied existence of competing parallel deities • Personal god • The Torah (“doctrine or teaching”)

  20. Foreign Conquests of Israel • Assyrian conquest, 722 B.C.E. • Conquered the northern kingdom • Deported many inhabitants to other regions • Many exiles assimilated and lost their identity • Babylonian conquest, 586 B.C.E. • Destroyed Jerusalem • Forced many into exile • Israelites maintained their religious identity and many returned to Judea

  21. Israel and Phoenicia, 1500-600 B.C.E. Phoenicia Trade routes

  22. The Phoenicians • City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000 B.C.E. • Extensive maritime trade • Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 B.C.E. • Development of alphabet symbols • Simpler alternative to cuneiform • Spread of literacy

  23. Indo-European Migrations • Common roots of many languages of Europe, southwest Asia, India • Probable original homeland: modern-day Ukraine and Russia, 4500-2500 B.C.E. • Domestication of horses, use of Sumerian weaponry allowed them to spread widely.

  24. Indo-European Migrations 3000-1000 B.C.E.

  25. Implications of Indo-European Migration • Hittites migrate to central Anatolia, 1900 B.C.E., later dominate Babylonia • Influence on trade • Horses, chariots with spoked wheels • Iron • Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also significant