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Alister McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction. Chapter 2: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, c.700-c.1500. On Defining the “Middle Ages”. Difficulties with defining the scope of the Middle Ages By the 11th century, three major power centers: Byzantium Western Europe The Caliphate

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alister mcgrath christian theology an introduction

Alister McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction

Chapter 2: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, c.700-c.1500

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

on defining the middle ages
On Defining the “Middle Ages”
  • Difficulties with defining the scope of the Middle Ages
  • By the 11th century, three major power centers:
    • Byzantium
    • Western Europe
    • The Caliphate
  • Strain in relationships between east and west
    • The filioque controversy
    • Political rivalry between Rome and Constantinople
    • Final break (often) dated to 1054

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

medieval theological landmarks in western europe
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Western Europe
  • The Carolingian renaissance
    • Charlemagne (742-814) and Alcuin (735-804)
    • Monastic schools and cathedral schools
  • The rise of cathedral and monastic schools of theology
    • The “Rule of Benedict”
    • Women theological writers
  • The religious orders and their schools of theology
    • Franciscans
    • Dominicans
    • Cistercians
    • Augustinians

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

slide4
The founding of the universities
  • Peter Lombard’s Four Books of the Sentences
  • The rise of scholasticism
  • The Italian Renaissance
    • Lack of scholastic theology in Italy
    • Physical reminders of the greatness of antiquity
    • Fall of Constantinople
  • The rise of humanism
    • “Ad fontes” (back to the sources)
    • The Latin Vulgate and the Greek New Testament

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

medieval theological landmarks in eastern europe
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Eastern Europe
  • The emergence of Byzantine theology
  • The iconoclastic controversy
    • Emperor Leo III
    • John of Damascus
  • The hesychastic controversy
    • Simeon the New Theologian
    • Gregory Palamas
  • The fall of Constantinople (1453)
    • Eastern Orthodoxy in Russia

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

key theologians
Key Theologians
  • John of Damascus (c.676-749)
    • Iconoclastic controversy
    • The Fountain of Wisdom; “the Orthodox Faith”
  • Simeon the New Theologian (949-1022)
    • Abbot of St. Mamas in Constantinople
  • Anselm of Canterbury (c.1033-1109)
    • Proslogion (the ontological argument)
    • Cur deus homo (theory of the atonement)
  • Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-74)
    • Summa contra Gentiles
    • Summa theologiae
      • The “Five Ways”
      • The principle of analogy
      • Relation between faith and reason

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

slide7
Duns Scotus (c.1265-1308)
    • The “subtle doctor”
    • Voluntarism v. illuminationism
    • Immaculate conception of Mary
  • William of Ockham (c.1285-1347)
    • Ockham’s razor
    • Nominalism
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam (c.1469-1536)
    • Christian humanism
    • Handbook of the Christian Soldier
    • First printed text of the Greek New Testament
    • Production of full texts of patristic works

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

key theological developments
Key Theological Developments
  • The consolidation of the patristic heritage
    • Augustine of Hippo
  • The exploration of the role of reason in theology
    • Anselm
      • faith seeking understanding
      • I believe, that I may understand
    • Aristotle, “the Philosopher”
    • Apologetics (e.g., Aquinas’s Summa contra Gentiles)
  • The development of theological systems
  • The development of sacramental theology
  • The development of the theology of grace

Wiley-Blackwell 2010

slide9
The role of Mary in the scheme of salvation
    • “maculists” v. “immaculists”
    • Mary as coredemptrix?
  • Returning directly to the sources of Christian theology
    • The Latin Vulgate and the Greek New Testament
  • The critique of the Vulgate translation of Scripture
    • First printed Greek New Testament in 1516
    • Translation errors in the Vulgate
      • Matthew 4:17 - “do penance” or “repent”
      • Luke 1:28 - “full of grace” or “favored one”

Wiley-Blackwell 2010