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Fires and Human Behaviour - Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice. Daniel Nilsson , Lund University. Our University. Lund University. Our department. Department of Fire Safety Engineering Fires and Human Behaviour. Dr Håkan Frantzich. Daniel Nilsson.

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fires and human behaviour studies of pre movement movement and exit choice

Fires and Human Behaviour- Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice

Daniel Nilsson, Lund University

our university
Our University
  • Lund University
our department
Our department
  • Department of Fire Safety Engineering
  • Fires and Human Behaviour

Dr Håkan Frantzich

Daniel Nilsson

fires and human behaviour studies of pre movement movement and exit choice1

Fires and Human Behaviour- Studies of pre-movement, movement and exit choice

Daniel Nilsson, Lund University

outline
Outline
  • General
  • Pre-movement time
  • Exit choice and movement
  • Discussion
general
General
  • Fires and human behaviour
    • Fire preparedness
    • Fire setting
    • Evacuation
    • Rescue operations
general1

>

Safe

General
  • When is a building safe for the occupants in case of fire?

Available SafeEscape Time

(ASET)

Required SafeEscape Time

(RSET)

general2

Smoke

Temperature

Toxic gases

Radiation

General
  • ASET

- Computer simulations

general3

Time

General
  • RSET - simple model

Detection & Alarm

Pre-movement

Travel

general4

Time

General
  • RSET - simple model

Detection & Alarm

Pre-movement

Travel

general5

Time

General
  • RSET - simple model

Travel

Detection & Alarm

Pre-movement

general6

Time

General
  • RSET - simple model

Pre-movement

Detection & Alarm

Travel

pre movement
Pre-movement
  • Hard to quantify
  • Research - experiments
    • Marks&Spencer (Northern Ireland)
    • Occupancy (Canada)
    • Offices (Canada)
    • Cinema (Sweden - LU)
    • IKEA (Sweden - LU)
    • Nuclear power plant (Sweden - LU)
pre movement1
Pre-movement
  • Is the pre-movement time really that important?

”The most important finding of this research is the fact that the start up time (i.e. people’s reaction to an alarm) is as (if not more) important as the time it takes physically to reach an exit”

(Sime, Creed, Kimura & Powell, 1992)

pre movement2
Pre-movement
  • Is the pre-movement time really that important?
  • ”If people take a long time to start to evacuate a setting the residual time to reach safety can be dramatically reduced.”

(Proulx & Sime, 1991)

pre movement3
Pre-movement
  • Nuclear power plant - 2005
    • Maintenance
    • Containment
    • Airlocks
    • Protective clothing
pre movement4
Pre-movement
  • Why don't people start to evacuate immediately?
    • Do not recognize the cue
    • False alarm / drill
    • Investment
    • Social influence
pre movement5

Type of builing

Type of alarm

Pre-movement time

Pre-movement
  • Recommendations based on experiments
pre movement6
Pre-movement
  • Social influence
pre movement7
Pre-movement
  • Latané & Darley, 1970
  • Experiment
    • Students, only male
    • Interview about urban life
    • Questionnaire
    • Smoke!!!
    • Alone, three subjects or one subject and two passive confederates
pre movement9
Pre-movement
  • Why does the student who is alone respond quicker?
  • Social Influence

Informational

Normative

pre movement10
Pre-movement
  • New study of cinema experiments
    • A. Johansson, TUD
    • D. Nilsson, LU
  • Two types of alarms
    • Ringing bell
    • Spoken message
pre movement11
Pre-movement
  • Results
    • Social influence more important for the ringing bell
exit choice
Exit choice
  • After pre-movement - choose an exit and move to a safe place
  • Emergency exits not always used
  • Example - IKEA experiments
    • Used normalexit
    • Only someemergencyexits
exit choice2
Exit choice
  • Some exits were used
exit choice3
Exit choice
  • Affiliation theory
    • Sime
    • Move towards familiar exits and people
    • Summerlandbuildingcomplex
exit choice4
Exit choice
  • Learned irrelevance
    • McClintoc et al
    • Learn not to observe signs
    • Study with blue flashing lights
exit choice5
Exit choice
  • How can we get people to choose the exits we want?
    • Flashing lights
    • Instructive messages
exit choice6
Exit choice
  • Tunnel experiments
    • 46 participants
    • One at a time
    • Smoke and aceticacid
    • Filmed with IR camera
    • Sound - fan & fire
exit choice7

Exit 1

Exit 2

Exit 3

35 meters

Entrance

Tunnel exit

Exit choice
exit choice8

Exit 1

Exit 2

Exit 3

Car

Pillars

Exit choice
exit choice10

Flashing lights

Row of flashing lights

Floor markings

Exit choice
exit choice12
Exit choice
  • Results
    • Walls important
    • Way guidance systems not as effective as believed
    • Feeling more than vision
exit choice13
Exit choice
  • Experiments - spring 2006
  • Cinema
    • Flashing green lights
    • Instructive message
  • Office
    • Flashing lights
exit choice14
Exit choice
  • Office - 9 floors, 400 persons
discussion
Discussion
  • General
  • Pre-movement
    • Experiments (cinema, power plant, IKEA)
    • Social influence
  • Exit choice
    • Tunnel experiment
    • Cinema and offices