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New York Correction History Society’s February 2008 Black History Month presentation to NYC DOC’s Correction Law Enf PowerPoint Presentation
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New York Correction History Society’s February 2008 Black History Month presentation to NYC DOC’s Correction Law Enforcement Explorers and Investigators . Black History Month began when? 1906? 1926? 1946? 1976? 1996?. Who began it? . Booker T. Washington?

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

New York Correction

History Society’s

February 2008

Black

History

Month

presentation

to

NYC DOC’s

Correction Law Enforcement Explorers and Investigators

slide2

Black History Month began when?

1906? 1926? 1946? 1976? 1996?

Who began it?

Booker T. Washington?

Dr. George W. Carver?

Rev. Martin Luther King?

Dr. Carter G. Woodson?

Rev. Jessie Jackson?

Carter G. Woodson was ex-slaves’ son, an unschooled coal miner at 17, self taught, graduated h.s. in 2 yrs, gained Harvard Ph.D, began Negro History Week Feb. 7, 1926.

Negro became

Black in ’60s,

Week became

Month in

1976.

slide3

Exploring and investigating

some

NYC Correction and Black History

connections

from

Civil War

era

to

modern era,

inclusive.

slide4

Why was ‘Tombs’ the execution site for

only American hanged as slave trader ?

Built in late

1830s, City Prison in Lower

Manhattan

became place of execution

Feb. 21,

1862 of Maine Capt. Nathaniel Gordon.

slide5

US Navy’s African Slave Trade Patrol, begun as anti-pirate squadron, expanded mission to enforce 1807 ban on

importing

slaves.

But the traders

often got off relatively easy … until the election of Abe Lincoln on GOP platform branding it “a crime against humanity,” vowing its “total and final suppression.”

slide6

Aug. 8, 1860, the Mohican captured the slave ship Erie with 897 who had been forced onto it. They were escorted to Liberia for

care by theAmerican Colonization Society (membership certificate above). Erie’sill treatment and bad conditions resulted in death of 30 West Africans.

slide7

Gordon, rejected a Buchanan DA’s lesser penalty plea offer, opted for 2nd trial after hung jury ended first. But bad choice. Lincoln’s DA Smith: ‘no deals.’ He pushed for death in Gordon case to end NY port slave trade. The death sentence specified City Prison as site for hanging.

U.S. DA

Edward Delafield Smith

slide8

July 13, 1860 pirate-murderer Albert Hicks was hanged at Fort Wood, Bedloe's Island.

Why not Gordon?

Bedloe's

Island

Last appeal argued a 1860 NY state law barred any prison executions except for murder or treason. But Correction board

chair S. Draper gave feds signed permission.

slide9

The execution was intended to display firm will to end slave trade. Would remote island site or NYC’s most famous prison best serve the purpose? The question really answers itself.

Decades later Bedloe’s Island became what? Hint: It’s very visible from the Staten Island ferry.

Bedloe’s later became

Liberty Island.

slide10

The Tombs was one of the jails/prisons run by NYC Dept. of Public Charities & Correction that had on its annual report covers the same Mother figure giving succor to her needy

as on the covers of its ancestor, the Alms House Dept. It ran hospitals and homes for the poor.

The Colored Home

Colored Orphan Asylum

slide11

1863 draft rioters torched

Colored Orphan Asylum. All 233 children saved,

sheltered at other

1st U.S. black Dr.:

James McC Smith

1st U.S. black Dr.:

James McC Smith

DPC&C facilities on Blackwell’s Isle

slide12

Riker’s Island-trained

20th Regiment USCTs

parade in NYC 3/5/1864

Shamed by riot,

Seymour had to withdrew

objection to NY USCTs being formed by Union

Leaguers.

Gov.

Seymour

slide13

Three of the 100+ Union regiments on Hart and Rikers Islands during Civil War were USCTs: the 20th, 26th, & the 31st.

Rikers

Island

before

land-

fill

Hart

Island

slide14

Rikers-trained

26th USCT on parade at Camp Wm. Penn, Pa. and the 20th’s camp flag of 34 stars.

slide15

Chaplain for the 20th USCT George W. LeVere later pastor of Knoxville church & national leader of many Prince Hall Masonic lodges that trace back to Boston

ex-slave

patriot.

Rikers’ 26th USCT

regimental banner

had its name on top, “God and Liberty” below.

slide16

Camp flag of

Rikers’ 26th USCT

with sewn name. Note

5 rows

of 6

stars and 1 row of 5 stars = 35.

slide17

Rikers Island

26th USCT’s chaplain later worked in S.C.

w/ Freedmen’s Bureau. Elected State Senator & head of S.C. GOP. Gunned

down by 3 white men. In Columbia a cemetery was established in his honor.

Benjamin

Franklin

Randolph

slide18

African American Civil War Memorial in D.C. features the sculpture Spirit of Freedom and the Wall of Honor – with 209,145 USCT names, including 5,092 who trained on Hart and Rikers Islands that became NYC Correction facilities in 1869 and 1884, respectively.

slide19

2 who

headed NYC jail & charity facilitieselected

Mayor, differed.

Anti-Lincoln Mayor Gunther had to preside over NYC’s official mourning for slain President but vetoed reprinting of the funeral ceremony program.

C. Godfrey

Gunther

Daniel F. Tiemann

C. Godfrey

Gunther

Daniel F. Tiemann

1864 – 1865

anti-abolition,

anti-Lincoln & Emancipation

1858 – 1860

anti-slavery,

a founder of

Cooper Union.

slide20

Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls begun in 1843 by 39 Baptists when their church didn’t cut slavery ties. Presbyterians joined it after their church expelled Rhoda Bement who challenged minister’s not announcing a women’s abolitionist meeting.

slide21

5 years later in the Chapel the 1st Women’s Rights Convention held, run by female abolitionists.

Rhoda Bement was

among subscribers. Era’s top Black advocate Frederick Douglass spoke, invited by Rhoda’s co-chairperson of anti-slavery fund-raiser Elizabeth M’Clintock. His statue at NPS hq.

slide22

48 years later the grand- daughter of Rhoda Bement

ran a Philadelphia settlement house, arranged for and worked with W. E. B. DuBois in urban sociology study of the ghetto it served. Entitled The Philadelphia Negro. Her name was Katharine Bement Davis (KBD).

slide23

In 1900 KBD

named to run Bedford Hills

Katharine

Bement

Davis

Reformatory for women. Refused to segregate inmates on basis of race.

In 1914 KBD named NYC Correction

Commissioner, first woman to head any NYC govmt agency. VP, Woman Suffragist Party, 1st on NY ballot.

slide24

KBD began NYC Parole Board, was 1st chairperson. In

1939 LaGuardia named Lou Gehrig to it. Lt. Samuel Battle,

1st Black cop, succeeded him.

Battle

Phillips

slide25

Benjamin Malcolm began in 1946 as an officer of the NYC Parole Board begun in 1915 by KBD. In 1978 he became Deputy Correction Commissioner & in 1972 Commissioner, first Black to head NYC DOC. In 1977, he became US Parole Commissioner.

slide26

1st Black cop in 80th Pct. in Brooklyn.

  • Law degree, NYPD Lt., Legal Affairs atty.
  • Complaint Bd. Exec.
  • In 1975 1st Black named NYS correctional services commissioner .
  • In 1978 named NYC Housing Police Chief.
  • In 1979 named NYC Correction Commissioner
  • In 1984 1st Black named NYPD commissioner.

Benjamin Ward

slide27

1st woman to head Academy.

  • 1st woman top uniformed officer.
  • 1984 named Correction Commissioner.
  • 1st CO to rise there thru ranks.
  • 1st African-American female Commissioner.

Jacqueline

McMickens

  • 3rd woman to become Commissioner.
slide28

James

A. Thomas

James

A. Thomas

Rikers penitentiary, built in 1933, named James A.Thomas Center in 1989 for man credited as Dept.’s 1st Black warden. He served as its warden from 1965. He had been tank sgt. in WWII, joined DOC in ’46 and retired after 30 years service.

slide29

AMK w/Mayor Wagner

James C. Harrelson, Dep. Warden honored for releasing inmates to help rescue people from burning wreckage of LaG Airport plane that crashed on Rikers Feb. 1, 1957. Except for Thomas’ earlier pro- visional app’tment, tied with Thomas as 1st Black permanently appointed warden.

slide30

Bx barge jail for Warden Vernon C. Bain.

Warden

Otis T. Bantum

Chief of Dept. Eric

M. Taylor

Chief of Dept. Rbt.

N. Davoren

slide31

Jessie L.

Behagen

1962

Before Guardians,

DOC recognized Correctionaires founded in 1939.

Its presidents included Warden Harrelson and

Superintendent Behagen.

Fr.Lawrence

Lucas of

Guardians

slide32

Now making DOC Black History:

COBA President Norman Seabrook

Chief of

Dept.

Carolyn

Thomas

CCA President Ronald Whitfield

slide33

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