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Vaccination. Vocabulary Check. Vaccination: conferring immunity to a disease by injecting an antigen (of attenuated microorganisms or inactivated component) so that the body acquires antibodies prior to potential infection

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Presentation Transcript
vocabulary check
Vocabulary Check
  • Vaccination: conferring immunity to a disease by injecting an antigen (of attenuated microorganisms or inactivated component) so that the body acquires antibodies prior to potential infection
  • Immunization: the injection of a specific antigen, derived from a pathogen, to confer immunity against a disease
  • Inoculation: to introduce a microorganism into an environment suitable for its growth
  • Attenuated: weakened, with diminished or no ability to cause disease
history of vaccines
History of Vaccines
  • Although it had long been recognized that those who had a disease once rarely contracted the same disease again, the process of immunization was not widely introduced until 1796 by Edward Jenner.
  • Jenner realized that milkmaids who contracted cowpox, a mild disease, rarely got smallpox, a much deadlier disease.
  • To test his hypothesis, Jenner inoculated an 8 year old boy with fluid extracted from a cowpox pustule of an infected individual. The boy got a mild infection, but when he was later exposed to smallpox, he remained healthy.
history of vaccines1
History of Vaccines
  • Louis Pasteur later noticed a similar phenomenon with chicken cholera bacterium. Chickens which were inoculated with aged bacteria only got a mild version of the disease, and when inoculated again with fresh bacteria, they were immune. The bacteria had become attenuated.
history of vaccines2
History of Vaccines
  • Since this discovery, many vaccines have been produced. Some of the diseases which are vaccine-preventable are:
    • Hepatitis A & B
    • Influenza
    • Measles
    • Rabies
    • Tuberculosis
how vaccines work
How Vaccines Work
  • Vaccines are injected or administered by mouth. Very new vaccines are available as nasal sprays.
  • Vaccines contain antigens to a disease which are inactivated or attenuated, and which stimulate an individual’s immune system to produce antibodies.
how vaccines work1
How Vaccines Work
  • Vaccines can be manufactured in several ways:
    • from dead or attenuated bacteria
    • from inactivated viruses
    • from purified polysaccharides from bacterial cell walls
    • from inactivated toxins
    • from recombinant DNA produced by genetic engineering
how vaccines work2
How Vaccines Work
  • Antibodies produced in response attack the vaccine antigen, and memory cells persist in the body.
  • It is these memory cells that will later prevent infection by the same antigen.
  • This is termed active artificial immunity.
greatest vaccine success story
Greatest Vaccine Success Story
  • Eradication of Smallpox
    • virus enters throat & respiratory tract, targeting phagocytes and blood cells
    • flu-like symptoms, leading to lesions, rash, scabs, severe scarring (if individual survives)
    • mortality rate around 30%
    • transmitted by direct contact with infected individual
greatest vaccine success story1
Greatest Vaccine Success Story
  • in 1950s there were approximately 50 million cases per year
  • in 1967, World Health Organization (WHO) began the Intensified Smallpox Eradication Programme
  • strategy: mass vaccinations, followed by intensive surveillance
  • 1979 declared smallpox eradicated
vaccine side effects
Vaccine Side Effects

Common side effects:

  • fever
  • allergies
  • minor swelling and pain at injection site

Rare side effects:

  • panencephalitis (inflammation of the brain) from measles vaccine
  • mutation of attenuated strain to virulent strain
  • brain damage from unknown cause (Whooping cough vaccine)