Chronology of the Roman Republic SenātusPopulusqueRōmānus "The Senate and People of Rome" Please draw the following timeline in your notebook. 133 B.C. 201 B.C. 146 B.C. 123 B.C. 48 B.C. 44 B.C. 27 B.C. 449 B.C. 30 B.C. 149 B.C. 60 B.C. 34 B.C. 509 B.C. 338 B.C. 241 B.C. 50 B.C. 49 B.C. 264 B.C. 218 B.C. 52 B.C. 31 B.C.
The mythical founding of Rome occurred when two newborn brothers named Romulus and Remus were kidnapped from their cradle and thrown in the Tiber river. They were rescued and raised by a she-wolf. The brothers eventually established a city on the 7 hills located near the location where the she-wolf had rescued them. Romulus killed his brother Remus in an argument and named the city Rome after himself.
Historically, Rome was a small city state of Latin speaking people who were ruled by the Etruscan Kingdom located in the north of the Italian Peninsula. The map below shows the land claims around the Mediterranean sea around 550 B.C.E.
509 B.C. Rome rebels against the Etruscans, and established the Roman Republic. Rather than a monarch, its government was led by 300 senators. 509 B.C.
449 B.C. The Twelve Tables are completed and displayed. These gave the plebeians (working class people) of Rome access to the laws of Rome and helped to bring a larger population into the political arena. 449 B.C.
338 B.C. Rome wins the Latin Wars. Rome had previously been allied with other Latin city states to fight against the Etruscans. Eventually Rome became dominant and brought the other Latins under its control. 338 B.C.
264 B.C. The first Punic War begins when Rome invades the • island of Sicily which was controlled by Carthage. 264 B.C.
241 B.C. Rome emerges victorious in the first Punic War and establishes its first province in Sicily. Because Rome had no naval experience, they built a navy of ships outfitted with a “corvus” allowing Them to turn naval battles into “land” battles. 241 B.C.
218 B.C. The second Punic War begins when the Carthaginian General Hannibal invades Roman territory. He launched an overland invasion hoping to avoid the Roman navy and force Rome’s allies to join the Carthage. 218 B.C.
During Hannibal’s invasion of Italy, he marched 40,000 men and 37 war elephants over the Alps. Only 25,000 men and one elephant survived this march. Nevertheless, Hannibal had a largely successful Italian campaign which lasted for 11 years.
201 B.C. The second Punic War ends when Rome went on the offensive and invaded North Africa. Hannibal had no choice but to return home from Italy and was soundly defeated at the battle of Zama. 201 B.C.
149 B.C. The Third Punic War begins. 146 B.C. Rome destroys Carthage. 146 B.C. 149 B.C.
146 B.C. Rome conquers Greece. This along with the victory in the third Punic war establish Rome as the new Mediterranean power. 146 B.C.
133 B.C. Tiberius Gracchus becomes Tribune and enacts reforms which returned much “public” land to farming families. 123 B.C. After the death of Tiberius, his brother Gaius became tribune and continued to reform. 133 B.C. 123 B.C.
60 B.C. The first Roman Triumvirate is formed between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. It was not an official governing body, but the alliance they created gave them outright power in the Roman political arena. They used this power to elect Julius Caesar as Consul in 59 B.C. and 60 B.C.
52 B.C. Julius Caesar leads the Romans to victory over the Gallic tribes in the Battle of Alesia. Gaul is now under Roman control. 52 B.C.
50 B.C. While Julius Caesar is in northern Italy, the Senate orders him to disband his army and return to Rome. 50 B.C.
49 B.C. Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon River with his army and in doing so begins the second Roman Civil War. 49 B.C.
48 B.C. Julius Caesar defeats Pompey at the battle of Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt where he is later assassinated by Pharaoh Ptolemy VIII who thought Julius Caesar would appreciate this gesture. Ptolemy VIII was the brother, husband, and co-ruler of Queen Cleopatra. In Rome, Julius Caesar was declared dictator and then traveled to Egypt to Pursue Pompey. When he arrived he formed an alliance with Cleopatra and the two ousted her brother Ptolemy VIII. They also had a son together whose name was Caesarion.
44 B.C. Julius Caesar is assassinated. The second triumvirate is formed the following year by Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus who divide the empire into three parts. “La Mort de César” by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1860 44 B.C.
34 B.C. Mark Antony and Cleopatra divide Antony’s portion of the empire between Cleopatra’s children. This act enraged Octavian who quickly declared war on Egypt and therefore also on Mark Antony. 34 B.C.
31 B.C. Octavian defeats Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium. “The Battle of Actium” by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672 31 B.C.
30 B.C. Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. The Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur (1892) 30 B.C.
27 B.C. Octavian declares himself Caesar Augustus, and becomes the first Emperor of Rome. After nearly 500 years, the Roman Republic officially comes to an end. 27 B.C.