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Nunavut. http://www.nunavuttourism.com/media/search.aspx?tag=24&tagname=Animal. This rock statue is called an inuksuk . These statues are used by the Inuit as directional markers and landmarks. Inuksuk comes from the Inuit words “ inuk ” meaning person and “ suk ” meaning substitute.

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  1. Nunavut http://www.nunavuttourism.com/media/search.aspx?tag=24&tagname=Animal

  2. This rock statue is called an inuksuk. • These statues are used by the Inuit as directional markers and landmarks. • Inuksuk comes from the Inuit words “inuk” meaning person and “suk” meaning substitute. • The inuksuk is meant to symbolize a person pointing travelers in the right direction.

  3. A Brief History of Nunavut • Scientists believe that the first people in North America were the Old World hunters, who came in search of food 30 000-25 000 BC. • These hunters hunted mammoths and mastodons. • Between 30 000 and 12 000 BCE most of Canada was buried under an ice sheet 4km thick.

  4. By 9000 BC the ice sheet was almost completely melted. • Around the year 1000 the Thule culture starts to appear. The Thule are the ancestors of the Inuit. • Between the 1570-1820 there were numerous expeditions by British explorers. • The British set up many settlements which primarily served as whaling stations.

  5. In 1999 Nunavut becomes Canada’s official 3rd territory.

  6. The Vikings • Erik the Red established settlements in Greenland and explored the Canadian North from 986-1020. • Erik’s son Leif Erikson created a settlement called Markland. • Markland is modern day Baffin island.

  7. READ ONLY • Some historians also believe that Leif created settlement in Newfoundland. • L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland is believed to be one of Lief’s settlements (1000 AD). • Despite proof like L’Anse aux Meadows many historians don’t believe that the Vikings explored Northern Canada.

  8. Nunavut: Land • The word Nunavut means “our land” in Inuktitut. • It makes up 21.3% of Canada’s total area, making it the largest part of Canada. Quebec is second (15%). • Most of Nunavut’s size come from the Arctic Archipelago (cluster of islands). • It has a very mountainous and rocky terrain. Some areas are still covered by ice sheets 2 km thick. • It has many valleys, frozen lakes, and costal fjords, caused by past movements of glaciers.

  9. The Regions of Nunavut • Nunavut has three major regions: 1.Baffin Region Cities and towns include: a) Iqaluit b) Pond Inlet c) Clyde River d) Eureka e) Alert

  10. Fjord: A narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes.

  11. Cities and Towns Include: • Chesterfield Inlet • Repulse Bay • Rankin Inlet 2. Keewatin Region:

  12. Cities and Towns Include: a) Cambridge Bay b) Bathurst Inlet 3. Kitikmeot Region:

  13. The image above is the purple saxifrage. • The Purple Saxifrage is the official flower of Nunavut. • This flower is one of the few plants that will grow in the Canadian north. • The Purple Saxifrage is a source of food for the Inuit. • This is a sweet tasting flower and could be eaten raw or boiled in water which creates a sweet liquid.

  14. Nunavut: Climate • Nunavut has a very harsh climate making most of Nunavut inhospitable (not liveable). • Winters are long and cold frequently reaching -40°C. There are very strong winds. • Summers are short and cool. The Temperature usually stays around 10°C. Frost in the summer is not uncommon. • The precipitation ranges from 300mm in the south to less then 100mm in the far north. This lack of precipitation lead many to call the North a Polar desert.

  15. Nunavut: Vegetation • Very few plants are able to survive in Nunavut’s harsh climate. • Nunavut has small bushes, patches of grass, mosses, lichens and some flowers. This type of vegetation is called Tundra. • There are NO trees in Nunavut.

  16. Nunavut: Population • Nunavut has a total area of 1.9 million km2. • Despite its huge size Nunavut only has a population of around 30 000 people. • Nunavut’s largest city is its capital, Iqaluit, it has a little over 6200 people. • Quebec has an area of 1.3 million km2 and has almost 8 million people. • Over 85% of Nunavut’s population is Inuit.

  17. Nunavut: Government • Nunavut became Canada’s 3rd territory on April 1st 1999. • Their premier is Paul Okalik, who has been serving since 1999. • Nunavut also has 1 seat in the House of Commons and 1 seat in the senate.

  18. The animal in the image above is a Narwhal. • The narwhal is a very distinct sea animal because of the long tusk on it’s face. • Narwhals can be 4-6 meters in length and can weight up to 1.6 tons. They live about 50 years. • The narwhal is a source of food for the Inuit. They also use the tusk to make different tools and weapons.

  19. Language and Education • Inuit children go to school in their own communities. They learn their native language as English or French. • Inuit education is very similar to ours in Quebec. In both areas a cultural group is trying to protect its culture. • The Inuit language is called Inuktitut. • Inuktitut has only 15 consonants and 3 vowels. • This is a very difficult language to learn.

  20. Inuit Clothing • Traditional Inuit clothing comes from animal skins, intestines or furs. • The Inuit used these parts because they retained heat and were waterproof. • Getting wet in the arctic is very dangerous, because you will begin to freeze. • Many people die every year in the arctic by not wearing the proper clothing.

  21. Shelter and Transportation • Traditionally the Inuit lived in an animal skin tent or sod (mud/dirt) house in the summer and an igloo in the winter. • Today many Inuit live in wooden houses. However, some still lead the traditional lifestyle.

  22. The Inuit many different modes of transportation, some are traditional and others are not. • Non traditional modes are snowmobiles, ATV’s (all terrain vehicle) and trucks. • Traditional methods include; dog-sled, kayak (one person boat), and umiaq (row boat)

  23. Sources of Food • Most of the Inuit diet is made up of meat and fish. There are very few edible plants in Nunavut. • Most Inuit will hunt or fish for their food. • Food sources include: narwhal, polar bear, seal, caribou, musk ox, and whale. • This diet gives the Inuit a lasting amount of energy which is very important in the North.

  24. The image above shows Inuit harpoon heads. • The harpoon was the traditional weapon of choice for the Inuit when hunting large animals. • The harpoon has three main parts. The shaft, head, and rope. • Once the head of the harpoon(s) stabbed the animal, the rope would be used to retrieve the body.

  25. Inuit Diet • The Inuit diet consists mostly of meat. This provides the Inuit with the energy they need to survive in the Arctic. • There are some edible plants in Nunavut (purple saxifrage). However many Inuit prefer eating meat. • The traditional method of obtaining meat is by hunting (see food sources).

  26. Hunting in Nunavut • Hunting is the main source of acquiring food in Nunavut. • Today the Inuit can buy food in general stores, but most still hunt. • Traditionally the main hunt ground for the Inuit were the pack ice and ice floes. • On the sea ice is where the Inuit would hunt larger animals, such as whales and seals.

  27. The Inuit used a variety of hunting weapons. • The harpoon and spear were used for larger animals. • Bow and arrows, clubs, and knives were used for smaller animals. • Bolas were used to hunt birds. A Bola is a small net with bone beads attached to it.

  28. Polar Bear hunting in Nunavut • Polar bear is a traditional food source for the Inuit. • Along with meat the Inuit will use Polar bear skins to make clothing. • The claws and bones are used to make tools and weapons. • Traditionally, the Inuit would use a harpoons, bows and arrows to kill polar bears. • Today the Inuit use high powered rifles.

  29. Today many people, other then the Inuit hunt polar bear. • Many adventure travelers, especially from the USA, will pay between 25,000 -30,000$ for the chance to kill a polar bear. • Many hunters will keep the skin or head as a trophy, and sell or discard the rest of the body. • The Canadian government has set limits on hunting polar bear, but there are many illegal hunt that take place every year.

  30. Controversy: Polar Bear Hunting • Almost 80% of all Polar Bears killed are in Nunavut. • In 2005 the government of Nunavut raised the quota of bear allowed to be killed from 400 to 518. • Many scientists believe that a high hunting quota along with the bears that are dying from a lack of food due to global warming, will put the Polar Bear on the endangered species list.

  31. Seal hunting in Nunavut • Seal are primarily killed for their skin, blubber, and meat. • The Inuit use seals forfood and use their skin and bones to make clothing and tools. • The Inuit traditionally used clubs, harpoons, and hakapiks to kill seals. • These weapons are still used today.

  32. Seals are hunted for personal (food), environmental, and commercial purposes. • Large clothing companies like Versace, Gucci, Tommy Hilfiger, Calvin Klein, and Ralph Lauren all have seal skin products.

  33. Controversy: Seal Hunting • Most of the world’s seal hunting is done in the Canadian north. • Harp seal is the type of seal that is usually hunted. • Canada is highly criticized for allowing seal hunts to continue. • This year the government established a 275 000 seal quota. This is down from last year’s 350 000. • Canada’s seal hunting season started on March 28.

  34. Canada is also criticized by animal rights groups for the brutal method they allow sealers to use: beating to death with a club or hakapik. • Government experts argue that the beating is painless. • The government argues if there was no seal hunt, the seal population would overrun other northern animals. • Sealing is an industry that makes nearly 25 million dollars every year.

  35. What do you think about seal and polar bear hunting? • Should the Governments do something about seal and polar bear hunting? Why or why not?

  36. The image above is a satellite view of Greenland. • 81% of Greenland’s surface is covered by an ice sheet. • The ice sheet is so heavy that it has pushed the actual surface 300 meters below sea level. • Greenland is the world’s largest island and has a population of about 60 000 people.

  37. What does Greenland and Nunavut have in common? • Large native population (Kalaallisut) • Native live similar lifestyle to the Inuit • Many natives rely on hunting or fishing • Climate and vegetation • Use sea ice and land glaciers to hunt. • Ice melt due to GLOBAL WARMING.

  38. Global Warming: The Basics • Global warming refers to a period when average temperatures all over the Earth increase. • Global warming occurs naturally. • Using large amounts of energy and the burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gases. • Greenhouse gases speed up the process of global warming.

  39. Pollution and deforestation also increase the rate of global warming.

  40. Effects of Global Warming on Nunavut What are some potential effects of global warming on Nunavut? • Inuit will not be able to use the sea ice for hunting. • Marine mammals and animals that use the ice will disappear. • Inuit will loose valuable food sources. • Inuit communities will disappear.

  41. Some General effects of Global Warming • Extreme Weather • Sea level rise • Flooding or Drought • Loss of potable water • Decreased food supplies • Loss of many animal species • Cost for many products (food, electricity, etc.) will increase.

  42. What can you do to help? • Use less electricity (fewer lights, etc.) • Waste less water • Reduce, reuse, recycle • Take public transportation, car pool, walk/bike • Buy energy efficient products • Change your light bulbs • Any others you can think of……………

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