Nunavut. In Canada, Nunavut is considered a native territory. NATIVE TERRITORY: Inuit. Nunavut, on the roof of the world. Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory. Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years.
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Nunavut, on the roof of the world • Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory. • Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years. • On April 1st, 1999 the Government of Canada and the Aboriginal people agreed to create the territory of Nunavut. • The Inuit govern Nunavut. In other words, they are responsible for making and enforcing rules and laws; they exercise authority over Nunavut.
Organizing a territory on ice • The land is covered in ice and snow throughout the year. • You’ll find patches of green and bright flowers during the summer. • Landscape is stony with lots of mountains and fjords.
A profound change in Nunavut • Nunavut has a population of 30 000 with residents scattered among 26 communities. • The largest community in Nunavut is Iqaluit. Its also the capitalwith a population of over 6 000.
Changes in their way of life in the last 50 years… • Before: Nomads • Now: Live in permanent homes. • Before 1950: They travelled in groups and lived in igloos. • Now: They live together in prefabricated houses.
Educational Rights: • Before: Elders passed on knowledge to their children orally. • Now: School is mandatory under the age of 16 years old. • Now: Children study English and Inuktitut (their mother tongue) in schools.
Today, projects are being set up to ensure that the traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost. • Laval University and Nunavut Arctic College are working together with the elders to write down and record the knowledge that they have on historical events, spiritual beliefs & myths, recipes, cultural traditions, traditional ways of hunting and fishing, making clothes etc.
Nunavut and its capital • The capital of Nunavut is Iqaluit. • Once called Frobisher Bay (before 1991). • Named after explorer searching route to China! • Rapidly growing population of over 6 000 people. • Iqaluit is built on metal piles planted deep (10-12 meters) in the permafrost. • Water is delivered to homes by tanker trucks.
Other trucks take away wastewater. • Above-ground sewer system exists for some communities.
How do residents earn a living? • Many jobs exist in the public sector, teaching and health care. • Jobs in mining (diamonds, gold, copper, zinc, etc.). • Jobs in commercial fisheries. • Jobs in commercial hunting. • Jobs in commercial fishing. • Jobs in oil and natural gas industries. • Jobs in tourism (hotels, restaurants, tour guides etc.). • Jobs in artwork. • Communities are known for their sculptures, engraving and tapestries. 7.
How do people in Nunavut get around? • Difficult to build roadways and railways on permafrost! • People use airplanes and boats (long distances). • Snowmobiles, bicycles and all-terrain vehicles (A.T.V.) • Dogsleds only used for tourist activities or leisure.
In Nunavut, all consumer goods arrive by plane or boat. • Transport is expensive. • Highest cost of living in Canada. • New communication technologies used to communicate with isolated communities!
They are inuksuit (the plural of inuksuk), which means “in the image of a human” in Inuktitut. • It is built by hand. • Well-balanced and detailed. • Inuksuit perform the following functions: • Guiding hunters and travellers • Marking a site – a fishing ground • Defining boundaries of a territory • Scaring caribou toward a hunting ground • Representing an element of Inuit spirituality
Territorial loss from the Century 17th on • Ever since the arrival of the early settlers in the 1600s, Native territories and aboriginal ways of life have gradually disintegrated. Why are the European settlers to blame? • The Europeans kicked out or forced the Aboriginals to relocate. The Europeans did this to take away their natural resources. • New illnesses broke out • Declared war on them and killed thousands • Treaties* were ignored (*An agreement between First Nations and the Europeans) • Forced them onto reserves • We built over their land
Terms Band: • Group of aboriginals led by a chief and a band council (members elected by the community) Reserve: • Territory given to a First Nation community by the Government of Canada. Treaty: • An agreement between First Nations and the Crown.
Reorganization today: • Aboriginal recognition of their rights for a long time. • Positive changes have only occurred in the past 30 years. Why? • Canadian government wants to have a good image in the Media and around the world. • Lots of meetings between Aboriginal leaders and the Government of Canada. • Pressure from Aboriginal organizations.
Living together: What are the global issues? • Native territories have become sought-after. • Once remote areas, these territories are now open to visitors, and they are being eyed by developers for development.
Aboriginal peoples of the world are faced with these issues: • Natural resources in their territories are being developed (for example: logging, mining, oil and gas drilling, and dam construction). • More and more Aboriginals are moving to the cities. This means there are less Aboriginals remaining in Aboriginal communities. • Environmental disasters (Ex: deforestation and river pollution) • Development of mass tourism
UN declaration on the rights of indigenous people • This document is important because it states the rights of indigenous people.
The declaration deals with the following guarantees to Aboriginals: • Preserving and protecting their Aboriginal identity. • Protecting their religion, their native language and providing school in both languages (English and Inuktitut). • Owning or using land and natural resources. • Preserving traditional ways of life (hunting, fishing, livestock raising, harvesting, logging, and farming). • Protecting their environment. • Controlling/governing their own territories. • Making sure agreements between the governments and the aboriginal groups are respected and carried out.
OKA CRISIS • It occurred in a small town in Oka. • It happened in the summer of 1990. • It was a showdown between native people, Quebec police and eventually the Canadian army. • The violent clash was triggered by over building a golf course over native burial grounds. • Blockades were placed by protesters. • It drew worldwide attention. • At the heart of the matter was native land rights.
About 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve marched through Oka protesting plans to expand the village's golf course. • They argued that the golf expansion would be encroaching on a sacred burial ground. • Approximately 1 300 residents live on the actual territory of the Kanesatake reserve.