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Nunavut. In Canada, Nunavut is considered a native territory. NATIVE TERRITORY: Inuit. Nunavut, on the roof of the world. Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory. Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years.

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nunavut on the roof of the world
Nunavut, on the roof of the world
  • Nunavut is a vast (big, spacious) territory.
  • Inuit have been living there for 8 000 years.
  • On April 1st, 1999 the Government of Canada and the Aboriginal people agreed to create the territory of Nunavut.
  • The Inuit govern Nunavut. In other words, they are responsible for making and enforcing rules and laws; they exercise authority over Nunavut.
organizing a territory on ice
Organizing a territory on ice
  • The land is covered in ice and snow throughout the year.
  • You’ll find patches of green and bright flowers during the summer.
  • Landscape is stony with lots of mountains and fjords.
a profound change in nunavut
A profound change in Nunavut
  • Nunavut has a population of 30 000 with residents scattered among 26 communities.
  • The largest community in Nunavut is Iqaluit. Its also the capitalwith a population of over 6 000.
changes in their way of life in the last 50 years
Changes in their way of life in the last 50 years…
  • Before: Nomads
  • Now: Live in permanent homes.
  • Before 1950: They travelled in groups and lived in igloos.
  • Now: They live together in prefabricated houses.
slide8
Educational Rights:
  • Before: Elders passed on knowledge to their children orally.
  • Now: School is mandatory under the age of 16 years old.
  • Now: Children study English and Inuktitut (their mother tongue) in schools.
slide9
Today, projects are being set up to ensure that the traditional knowledge of the Elders is not lost.
  • Laval University and Nunavut Arctic College are working together with the elders to write down and record the knowledge that they have on historical events, spiritual beliefs & myths, recipes, cultural traditions, traditional ways of hunting and fishing, making clothes etc.
nunavut and its capital
Nunavut and its capital
  • The capital of Nunavut is Iqaluit.
  • Once called Frobisher Bay (before 1991).
  • Named after explorer searching route to China!
  • Rapidly growing population of over 6 000 people.
  • Iqaluit is built on metal piles planted deep (10-12 meters) in the permafrost.
  • Water is delivered to homes by tanker trucks.
slide11
Other trucks take away wastewater.
  • Above-ground sewer system exists for some communities.
how do residents earn a living
How do residents earn a living?
  • Many jobs exist in the public sector, teaching and health care.
  • Jobs in mining (diamonds, gold, copper, zinc, etc.).
  • Jobs in commercial fisheries.
  • Jobs in commercial hunting.
  • Jobs in commercial fishing.
  • Jobs in oil and natural gas industries.
  • Jobs in tourism (hotels, restaurants, tour guides etc.).
  • Jobs in artwork.
  • Communities are known for their sculptures, engraving and tapestries.

7.

how do people in nunavut get around
How do people in Nunavut get around?
  • Difficult to build roadways and railways on permafrost!
  • People use airplanes and boats (long distances).
  • Snowmobiles, bicycles and all-terrain vehicles (A.T.V.)
  • Dogsleds only used for tourist activities or leisure.
slide14
In Nunavut, all consumer goods arrive by plane or boat.
  • Transport is expensive.
  • Highest cost of living in Canada.
  • New communication technologies used to communicate with isolated communities!
slide16
They are inuksuit (the plural of inuksuk), which means “in the image of a human” in Inuktitut.
  • It is built by hand.
  • Well-balanced and detailed.
  • Inuksuit perform the following functions:
  • Guiding hunters and travellers
  • Marking a site – a fishing ground
  • Defining boundaries of a territory
  • Scaring caribou toward a hunting ground
  • Representing an element of Inuit spirituality
territorial loss from the century 17 th on
Territorial loss from the Century 17th on
  • Ever since the arrival of the early settlers in the 1600s, Native territories and aboriginal ways of life have gradually disintegrated.

Why are the European settlers to blame?

  • The Europeans kicked out or forced the Aboriginals to relocate. The Europeans did this to take away their natural resources.
  • New illnesses broke out
  • Declared war on them and killed thousands
  • Treaties* were ignored (*An agreement between First Nations and the Europeans)
  • Forced them onto reserves
  • We built over their land
terms
Terms

Band:

  • Group of aboriginals led by a chief and a band council (members elected by the community)

Reserve:

  • Territory given to a First Nation community by the Government of Canada.

Treaty:

  • An agreement between First Nations and the Crown.
reorganization today
Reorganization today:
  • Aboriginal recognition of their rights for a long time.
  • Positive changes have only occurred in the past 30 years.

Why?

  • Canadian government wants to have a good image in the Media and around the world.
  • Lots of meetings between Aboriginal leaders and the Government of Canada.
  • Pressure from Aboriginal organizations.
living together what are the global issues
Living together: What are the global issues?
  • Native territories have become sought-after.
  • Once remote areas, these territories are now open to visitors, and they are being eyed by developers for development.
aboriginal peoples of the world are faced with these issues
Aboriginal peoples of the world are faced with these issues:
  • Natural resources in their territories are being developed (for example: logging, mining, oil and gas drilling, and dam construction).
  • More and more Aboriginals are moving to the cities. This means there are less Aboriginals remaining in Aboriginal communities.
  • Environmental disasters (Ex: deforestation and river pollution)
  • Development of mass tourism
un declaration on the rights of indigenous people
UN declaration on the rights of indigenous people
  • This document is important because it states the rights of indigenous people.
the declaration deals with the following guarantees to aboriginals
The declaration deals with the following guarantees to Aboriginals:
  • Preserving and protecting their Aboriginal identity.
  • Protecting their religion, their native language and providing school in both languages (English and Inuktitut).
  • Owning or using land and natural resources.
  • Preserving traditional ways of life (hunting, fishing, livestock raising, harvesting, logging, and farming).
  • Protecting their environment.
  • Controlling/governing their own territories.
  • Making sure agreements between the governments and the aboriginal groups are respected and carried out.
oka crisis
OKA CRISIS
  • It occurred in a small town in Oka.
  • It happened in the summer of 1990.
  • It was a showdown between native people, Quebec police and eventually the Canadian army.
  • The violent clash was triggered by over building a golf course over native burial grounds.
  • Blockades were placed by protesters.
  • It drew worldwide attention.
  • At the heart of the matter was native land rights.
slide25

About 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve marched through Oka protesting plans to expand the village's golf course.

  • They argued that the golf expansion would be encroaching on a sacred burial ground.
  • Approximately 1 300 residents live on the actual territory of the Kanesatake reserve.