Native Territories What are Native Territories? • Native territories are areas that have been given by governments, to first nations (aboriginals). • These areas are protected by a special set of laws and are self-governing. • In Canada, Nunavut is considered a native territory.
Defining Aboriginal • An Aboriginal refers a person living in an area before the arrival of foreigners. • Aboriginals have a culture and a specific way of life. • Other words to describe aboriginals; natives, first nations, or indigenous. • In Canada there is a small population of aboriginals in every province. • There are approximately 83 000 aboriginals in Quebec.
This rock statue is called an inuksuk. • These statues are used by the Inuit as directional markers and landmarks. • Inuksuk comes form the Inuit words “inuk” meaning person and “suk” meaning substitute. • The inuksuk is meant to symbolize a person pointing travelers in the right direction.
A Brief History of Nunavut • Scientists believe that the first people in North America were the Old World hunters, who came in search of food 30 000-25 000 BCE. • These hunters hunted mammoths and mastodons. • Between 30 000 and 12 000 BCE most of Canada was buried under an ice sheet 4km thick.
By 9000 BCE the ice sheet was almost completely melted. • Between the 1570-1820 there were numerous expeditions by British explorers. • The British set up many settlements which primarily served as whaling stations. • The population of the North continues to grow in the 20th century. • In 1999 Nunavut becomes Canada’s official 3rd territory.
The Vikings • According to Norse sagas, Erik the Red established settlements if Greenland and explored the Canadian North from 986-1020. • The Viking explored modern day Baffin Island and Newfoundland. • There is evidence that the Vikings set up a colony on Newfoundland known as L’Anse aux Meadows.
Nunavut: Land • The word Nunavut means “our land” in Inuktitut. • Most of Nunavut’s size come from the Arctic Archipelago (cluster of islands). • Nunavut has a very mountainous and rocky terrain. Some areas are still covered by ice sheets 2 km thick. • Nunavut has many valleys, frozen lakes, and costal fjords, caused by past movements of glaciers.
Nunavut: Climate and Vegetation • Nunavut has a very harsh climate making most of Nunavut inhospitable (not liveable). • Winters are long and cold frequently reaching -40°C. There are very strong winds. • Summers are short and cool. • Nunavut is a Polar desert due to its lack of precipitation. • There are no trees in Nunavut. Vegetation is known as Tundra.
Nunavut: Population • Nunavut has a total area of 1.9 million km2. • Despite its huge size Nunavut only has a population of around 30 000 people. • Nunavut’s largest city is its capital, Iqaluit, • Quebec has an area of 1.3 million km2 and has almost 8 million people. • Over 85% of Nunavut’s population is Inuit.
Nunavut: Government • Nunavut became Canada’s 3rd territory on April 1st 1999. • Nunavut also has 1 seat in the House of Commons and 1 seat in the senate.
Language and Education • Inuit children go to school in their own communities. They learn their native language as English or French. • The Inuit language is called Inuktitut. • Inuktitut has only 15 consonants and 3 vowels.
Inuit Clothing • Traditional Inuit clothing comes from animal skins, intestines or furs. • The Inuit used these parts because they retained heat and were waterproof. • Getting wet in the arctic is very dangerous, because you will begin to freeze. • Many people die every year in the arctic by not wearing the proper clothing.
Shelter and Transportation • Traditionally the Inuit lived in an animal skin tent or sod (mud/dirt) house in the summer and an igloo in the winter. • Today many Inuit live in wooden houses. However, some still lead the traditional lifestyle.
The Inuit many different modes of transportation, some are traditional and others are not. • Non traditional modes are snowmobiles, ATV’s (all terrain vehicle) and trucks. • Traditional methods include; dog-sled, kayak (one person boat), and umiaq (row boat)
Sources of Food • Most of the Inuit diet is made up of meat and fish. There are very few edible plants in Nunavut. • Most Inuit will hunt or fish for their food. • Food sources include: narwhal, polar bear, seal, caribou, musk ox, and whale.
The image above shows Inuit harpoon heads. • The harpoon was the traditional weapon of choice for the Inuit when hunting large animals.
Hunting in Nunavut • Hunting is the main source of acquiring food in Nunavut. • Today the Inuit can buy food in general stores, but most still hunt. • Traditionally the main hunt ground for the Inuit were the pack ice and ice floes. • On the sea ice is where the Inuit would hunt larger animals, such as whales and seals.
Polar Bear and Seal hunting • Polar bear is a traditional food source for the Inuit. • Inuit will use Polar bear skins to make clothing and claws and bones are used to make tools and weapons. • Today many people, other then the Inuit hunt polar bear. • The Canadian government has set limits on hunting polar bear, but there are many illegal hunt that take place every year.
Seal are primarily killed for their skin, blubber, and meat. • Many people other then the Inuit hunt seals. • This is a big industry that generates close to 25 million dollars every year. • Many people feel that the government should do something about the method of killing seals.
Loss of Territory • With the arrival of immigrants to Canada, native land, culture and way of life has been disappearing. • With the creation of Canada, Native were subjected to Canadian laws and policies. • They were also forced to live in certain designated areas. • Today pressure from many Native rights groups are forcing governments to fix/ apologize for past actions.
For the Inuit, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement was signed in 1993. • This created Nunavut in 1999.
What did the Inuit gain? • New territory, inhabited mostly by Inuit • A government • The right to hunt and fish • The right to manage resources (oil, gas, ore, etc.) • Protected national parks. • Recognition on by other governments. This allows the Inuit to work with other governments to preserve their way of life.
A capital city • An official language • Elected members to parliament • Right to pass on native culture and traditions.
Why did Canada create Nunavut • By creating Nunavut the Canadian government was able to settle main claims from native groups. • It showed the willingness of the government to develop the Inuit lifestyle along with the rest of developed Canada.
The image above is a satellite view of Greenland. • 81% of Greenland’s surface is covered by an ice sheet. • The ice sheet is so heavy that it has pushed the actual surface 300 meters below sea level. • Greenland is the world’s largest island and has a population of about 60 000 people.
What does Greenland and Nunavut have in common? • Large native population (Kalaallisut) • Native live similar lifestyle to the Inuit • Many natives rely on hunting or fishing • Climate and vegetation • Use sea ice and land glaciers to hunt. • Ice melt due to GLOBAL WARMING.
Global Warming: The Basics • Global warming refers to a period when average temperatures all over the Earth increase. • Global warming occurs naturally. • Using large amounts of energy and the burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gases. • Greenhouse gases speed up the process of global warming.
Effects of Global Warming on Nunavut What are some potential effects of global warming on Nunavut? • Inuit will not be able to use the sea ice for hunting. • Marine mammals and animals that use the ice will disappear. • Inuit will loose valuable food sources. • Inuit communities will disappear.
Some General effects of Global Warming • Extreme Weather • Sea level rise • Flooding or Drought • Loss of potable water • Decreased food supplies • Loss of many animal species • Cost for many products (food, electricity, etc.) will increase.
What can you do to help? • Use less electricity (fewer lights, etc.) • Waste less water • Reduce, reuse, recycle • Take public transportation, car pool, walk/bike • Buy energy efficient products • Change your light bulbs • Any others you can think of……………
Other Native Communities affected by Global Warming • Nunavut (Canada) and Greenland are affected. • Alaska, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia have native communities that are affected by global warming. • In 1996 the native groups from these areas formed the Arctic Council to protect their way of life.
Native territory throughout the world • Throughout history native rights and native way of life has not always been respected. • With the arrival of Europeans to North and South America native populations and culture started to decline. • In many countries natives were forced to move onto reserves, abandon their culture, attend residential schools and adopt a new way of life.
Reserve: Is an area set aside for natives. The land is owned by the federal government, but administered (run) by the native community. • With the European expansion (1450-1750 approx), most native land became European controlled (colonies). • This lack of respect for native rights continued up until the early 1970’s in many countries (Canada and USA). • In the 1970’s native rights groups began to form.
Native claims throughout the world • Today there are many native rights groups are fighting for recognition and compensation (land, money, rights, apology) for past actions against them. • Every native group has certain claims that are unique to them. But there are some major similarities. • Claim: Demand.
Common claims of native groups are: • Land claims: Native groups want land that used to belong to them. • Development of natural resources on their territories. • Government funding for cultural projects and tourism. • Preservation of native culture and language. • Political recognition
Case Study: Oka • Most of the time native groups demonstrate peacefully and bring their claims through the proper channels. • In some cases claims are very personal and get very heated. Ex: Oka, Quebec. • The “Oka Crisis” took place from June-September 1990 in the town of Oka, Quebec.
The Mohawk community had made a claim for a certain area of land. • This land had been purchased to expand a local golf course. The result: • Military and SQ officers called in. • Two deaths • Numerous arrests • Mohawks surrender • Expansion of the golf course was cancelled • Land is still under dispute
The UN and natives • Between 1985-1993 the United Nations (UN) set up the WGIP. • This group was created to look at native claims and issues. • In 2007 the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was created. • This document provides support for native rights groups. • Canada never signed this document. Therefore, it does not apply here.
Why do native rights groups make claims? • Recognition and respect • Retribution, get back what used to belong to them • Religious and ancestral rights • Others...... Are their claims valid ?
Should governments grant their claims? Why/why not? • Remember when answering these questions: • Explain • Write a well though out response • Realistic/probable answer