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First Language Acquisition & other areas of linguistics. Language Universals (Meike Bauer ) Language Pathology (Silvia Mincheva & Meike Strohn) Speech errors (Eva Ortmann & Lena Löbbert) Acquisition of Meaning (Vanessa Mosel & Sabine Staiger).

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first language acquisition other areas of linguistics

First Language Acquisition& other areas of linguistics

Language Universals (Meike Bauer )

Language Pathology (Silvia Mincheva & Meike Strohn)

Speech errors (Eva Ortmann & Lena Löbbert)

Acquisition of Meaning (Vanessa Mosel & Sabine Staiger)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

language universals

Language Universals

Language Universals

A short introduction

(Meike Bauer GS, LN)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

slide3

Language Universals

  • Def. Language:

a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area

  • Def. Universal:

involving or understood by everyone in the world

Def. Language Universals:

Basic patterns or principles that are shared by all languages

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

semantic universals

Semantic universals

Semantic categories that are shared by all cultures and referred to by all languages

E.g.: our notion of colour

- black, white, red, green, blue, yellow, brown, purple,

pink, orange and grey

E.g.: the case of pronouns

- “I”, “you”, “we”

- singular & plural in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

slide5

Phonological universals

E.g.: universal rules which govern the distribution of vowels

- languages with few vowels always have

the same set of vowel types

- it is always the same type of vowel that is

added to the set

- they may not always sound the same, but

they are always created at the same location in

our vocal apparatus

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

slide6

Syntactic universals

  • Two different sets of basic orders

- SVO, VSO, SOV

- VOS, OVS, OSV

  • First set appears more often among the languages of the world
  • Overwhelming tendency for the subject of a sentence to precede the direct object among the languages of the world

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

slide7

Absolute universals

  • Rules that appear without exception in the languages which have been studied so far

- all languages have vowels

- all languages have pronoun systems distinguishing at

least three persons and two numbers

  • Universal tendencies or relative universals are expressions that are used when there are minor exceptions to the rule

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide8

Implicational universals

  • Universals that hold only if a particular condition of the language structure is fulfilled

- if a language has voiced stops, it has the

corresponding voiceless stops

- e.g.: no language has b/d/g without p/t/k

  • In opposite to implicational universals, nonimplicational universals can be stated without a condition

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide9

Criticism on the term “universals“

  • Hansjakob Seiler:

- empirical observation results in generalizations

but will not give us “the universals“

- universality cannot be reached by

generalization alone

- generalizations can be checked and,

eventually, falsified

- universals in our sense are not directly, but

only indirectly, reflected in the observable data

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide10

References

  • Hawkins, John A. Explaining Language Universals. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1988
  • Langenscheidt-Longman. Dictionary of Contemporary English. Harlow: Longman Group Ltd, 1995
  • Seiler, Hansjakob. Language Universals Research: A Synthesis. Tübingen: Narr, 2000
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_universal (25th June)
  • http://www.hku.hk/linguist/program/Typology2.html (25th June)
  • http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text/2frame.html (21st June)

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

language pathology disorders of the written language

Language Pathology- Disorders of the Written Language -

Dyslexia (Silvia Mincheva, LN, HS)

- Dysgraphia (Meike Strohn, GS, TN)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

definition of dyslexia

DEFINITION OF DYSLEXIA

Disorders of the reading system referring to:

Children who have particular difficulties learning to read

These children when they become adults

People who have already acquired reading and become brain-damaged - ALEXIA

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

childhood dyslexia i

CHILDHOOD DYSLEXIA I

Four-stage reading acquisition (Frith, 1985)

Logographic Skills

Alphabetic Skills

Orthographic Skills

Ability to read written language becomes entirely independent of spoken language

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

childhood dyslexia ii

CHILDHOOD DYSLEXIA II

Two main categories of dyslexics

Children having difficulties with identifying whole words – Dyseidetics

Children having difficulties with decoding the sounds associated with letters – Disphonetics

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

childhood dyslexia iii

CHILDHOOD DYSLEXIA III

Child dyslexics usually do not have history of neurological problems

Children with recurrent ear infections in early childhood may develop dyslexia

Common theory - there is an additional brain basis for the various forms of childhood dyslexia

Higher proportion of left-handers among dyslexics

Dyslexia has been developed markedly more often among boys than among girls

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

alexia i

ALEXIA I

People who have already acquired reading and become brain-damaged which has affected their reading abilities

Sometimes reading problems are secondary to other sorts of language problems

“Pure alexics”- reading problem is the only language problem that is seen

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

alexia ii traditional classification system

ALEXIA II - Traditional classification system

“Letter by letter reading”- patients cannot recognize words or higher units but can recognize individual letters

Input problem-problems with written but not auditory input of letter strings. Ability to read small parts of words but not whole words.

Literal alexia – patients unable to read letters but relatively able to read whole words

Grammatical functors and nonsense words more poorly read than substantives

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

alexia iii new classification system

ALEXIAIII - New classification system

Surface alexia – patients are able to decode words phonologically but unable to recognize whole words

Deep alexia – patients are unable to decode words phonologically but perform some sort of whole-word or “gestalt” reading of words

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

language pathology disorders of the written language19

Language Pathology- Disorders of the Written Language -

- Dysgraphia (Meike Strohn, GS, TN)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

introduction

Introduction

Definition of the Term

Example

Reasons for Dysgraphia

Different Kinds of Dysgraphia

Remedial Treatment

Conclusion

References

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

definition of the term

Definition of the Term

Dysgraphia:A disorder characterized by writing disabilities, irrespective of level of education, after damage to the brain. Due to varying degrees, it is difficult to determine, when it is pathological. The equivalent to dyslexia in writing.

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

example

Example

First draft of a creative story as typed by a 12-year-old student:

“the way I descride a bumby ride is like wothgan mowtsarts mowsek. eshe bumby rowd is like a song. Eshe bumb is the a note eche uncon at the sam time ste is. that was the mewstere to mowts mowsuk it was vare metereus and unperdekdable. So the next time you drive down a bumby theak of mowtsart.“

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

reasons for dysgraphia

Reasons for Dysgraphia

may be caused by the same triggers as dyslexia, but not necessarily

visual processing weakness

impaired graphic motor capacity

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

reasons for dysgraphia24

Reasons for Dysgraphia

Aphasia (acquired language disorder) focal brain damage mostly left hemisphere e.g. because of an accident, tumor or stroke

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

reasons for dysgraphia25

Reasons for Dysgraphia

Alzheimer’s disease (shrinkage of the brain, a sort of dementia)

symptoms:- anomia- spelling errors - irregular or non-words- inappropriate repetition- illegibility

1) lexical, 2) phonological & 3) grapho-motor impairments

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

different kinds of dysgraphia

Different Kinds of Dysgraphia

Surface dysgraphic problems:- incorrect phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence patients can no longer sound out words they have to spell

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

different kinds of dysgraphia27

Different Kinds of Dysgraphia

Deep dysgraphic problems:- lexico-semantic disturbances  instead of the correct word, a semantically related one is usede.g. “scissors”  “stapler”

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

remedial treatment

Remedial Treatment

for motor disorders to help control writing movements

for impaired memory or other neurological problems

teaching to write more slowly

usage of computers to avoid the problems of handwriting

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

conclusion

Conclusion

reading and writing require all the skills of oral language+those of decoding and encoding orthographic information

that is why there are so many vulnerable spots and a number of different reasons for reading and writing impairments (dyslexia and dysgraphia).

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

references

References

Crystal, David. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997

Crystal, David. Introduction to language pathology. London: Arnold, 1980

Crystal, David. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Grodzinsky, Yosef and Lewis P. Shapiro; David Swinney (ed.) Language and the brain. Representation and processing. London: Academic Press, 2000

Hickey, Raymond. Linguistics Surveyor. 2005

Strazny, Philipp. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York [u.a.]: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8107977&dopt=Abstract

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dysgraphia/dysgraphia.htm

http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/dysgraphia.html

http://www.margaretkay.com/Dysgraphia.htm

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors

Speech Errors

A general introduction into the topic: speech errors

Eva Ortmann: LN (Grundstudium)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors32

Speech Errors

The first linguistic analysis was published in 1895 in

Vienna by Meringer and Meyer.

6 years later Freud published “ the classic psychological

treatment of speech errors”.

it is important to mention these two because they had a

deep influence on following researches although their

attitudes towards speech errors were different.

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors33

Speech Errors

What do we mean by speech errors?

Example:

T: She is marked with a big scarlet A.

A: She is marked with a big scarlet R eh A.

Explication: the prespoken scarlet triggered red which because it begins with the letter R competed in this situation with the intended A.

( substitution)

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors34

Speech Errors

Which words are likely to be substituted by others?

in general, semantically or phonologically similar items increase the

possibility of speech errors

the example of the scarlet A showed that errors where there is no

obvious phonological similarity do also occur

researches show that there are often substitutions in which the error

and the target word are in an antonymous relation, or they are co-

hyponyms

co-hyponyms red instead of black

antonyms  late instead of early

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors35

Speech Errors

Analysis of spontaneously produced errors show that:

60% of the words result in non words

example: it is said: “Can I morrow your dotes?” instead of

“Can I borrow your notes?”

40% of the words result in actual words

example: it is said: “Did you forget to dock the lore?”

instead of “Did you forget to lock the door?”

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors36

Speech Errors

There are also some linguists who are concerned with the correction of speech errors.

Noteboom & Lavers

 Laver thinks that there are so few errors made by us because of an active internal motoring of covert errors.

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors37

Speech Errors

Conclusion:

 speech errors is a very complex field of research

 speech errors occur to all people

 there is no linguistic unit that seems to be immune

 the number of speech errors also depends on the emotional situation of the subject

(nervousness and anxiety trigger speech errors)

 words are more likely to be substituted by words that are phonologically or/ and semantically similar to the target word

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

speech errors38

Speech Errors

Slips of the tongue in normal and pathological speech

Language and the Mind Summer term 2006 Group 7

slide39

1. Introduction

  • In 1901 Siegmund Freud suggested that slips of the tongue might tell us something about the “probable laws of the formation of speech“
  • Spoonerisms are analysed by linguists who want to learn about the organization of language in the brain
  • In literature there are many references to pathological speech pointing out the similarities between normal and pathological speech errors
slide40
Study by Ewa Söderpalm Talo comparing errors in normal speech and pathological speech errors in aphasia
  • Definition: slip of the tongue = a deviation from what the speaker had in mind to say
  • Adults with a damage of the brain can have articulatory disturbances of various kinds
slide41
2. Sampling

Many linguists pointed out that there are various kinds of difficulties in collecting speech errors:

- they occur in spontaneous speech, are seldom recorded

- many errors are not noticed

In Ewa Söderpalm Talo‘s study the corpus of normal errors consists of about 200 slips of the tongue of adults.

There are about 100 examples of pathological speech errors which were collected in therapy sessions in conversation with aphasic patients. Most of them had suffered cerebral vascular accidents causing aphasia.

slide42

3. Classification

The phonological errors were analysed by a classification system:

1. Syntagmatic errors

a) Metathesis of Phoneme (morpheme, word)

e.g. kontamination  kontanimation

Kanada vann  Vanada kann

b) Anticipation

e.g. insiktslöshet  insliktlöshet

e.g. brittiske biträdande ministern bittiske biträdande…

slide43
c) Dublication

e.g. det tror jag är hiskeligt viktigt  …hiskeligt visk

  • Paradigmatic Errors - Substitution of phoneme (morpheme, word)

e.g. nu ljuger jag  nu ljuter jag

  • Metathesis errors are very rare among the pathological errors
  • The example of a paradigmatic error represents the most common type of error in the pathological corpus
slide44

4. Conclusions

  • All kinds of errors occur in the normal and in the pathological corpus, but there is a difference in quantity
  • Syntagmatic errors are more common in normal speech, whereas paradigmatic errors prevail in the pathological corpus
  • 60 % of the errors in pathological speech are paradigmatic substitution errors, less than 20 % are paradigmatic in normal speech
  • The occurrence of errors in aphasic speech is bigger than in normal speech, but there seem to be less types of errors
slide45
Normal speakers are often aware of their mistakes, they correct them or indicate by pausing that they noticed it
  • Aphasic speakers seldom correct their mistakes because they do not notice them
  • During language rehabilitation the awareness of errors increases, so it could be used as an indicator for therapeutic progress

Quelle: Fromkin, Victoria A. : Errors in Linguistic Performance: Slips of the Tongue, Ear, Pen and Hand, 1980, Academic Press

acquisition of meaning

Acquisition of Meaning

Acquisition of Meaning

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide47

Acquisition of Meaning

Part ISabine Staiger1. Lexical Development2. Bootstrapping3. Under & Overextensions4.Comprehension – Production Gap5. Vocabulary Burst6. Fast-Mapping7. Semantic Contrast

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide48

Acquisition of Meaning

  • Lexical development:

Which string of sounds corresponds to which meaning?!

  • Learning the semantics of words:

Spoken word + certain attributes / characteristic properties

  • No fully viable theories of word-learning, but a few principles

which are thought to guide the child’s word-learning process…

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide49

Acquisition of Meaning

  • Principle of Reference

Words refer to objects, actions, states, and attributes in the environment

  • Whole Object Principle

Word refers to the whole object not just part of it

  • Principle of Categorical Scope

Word extended to other members of the same category rather than

to items thematically related to it

  • Principle of Lexical Contrast/
  • Mutual Exclusivity Assumption

Children assume that each object has ONLY one label

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide50

Acquisition of Meaning Bootstrapping

Bootstrapping

  • From: ‘to lift oneself up by one’s bootstraps’
  • Computers: simple system activates a complicated system
  • Use combination of semantics & syntactic knowledge to learn new words
  • Divide words into grammatical subclasses very early (common vs. proper nouns)
  • will get children started on their way to acquiring parts of speech

(which can later be supplemented by other linguistic information)

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide51

Acquisition of Meaning Bootstrapping

Bootstrapping

Vocabulary production:

  • End of the first year= first words
  • 15 month= producing 10 words
  • Vocabulary of around 50 = combine words
  • 6 years= 10,000- 14,000 words

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide52

Acquisition of Meaning Under & Overextensions (I)

Under & Overextensions (I)

Under extensions:

  • Mapping of a word onto a very narrow, situation specific referent
  • eg. ‘shoe’ only refers to a specific pair of shoes

‘ dog’ only refers to the family dog

  • Principle of Reference not fully matured but

Whole Object Principle is already in place!

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide53

Acquisition of Meaning Under & Overextensions (II)

Under & Overextensions (II)

Overextensions:

  • to generalize the meaning of words
  • eg. ‘apple’ other round this as well

‘ daddy’ refers to all men

  • shape/ color/ function/ material/ sound as well
  • Principle of Categorial Scope
  • Children have very limited vocabularies & simply do not know

the words they need at that moment

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide54

Acquisition of Meaning Comprehension – Production Gap

Comprehension – Production Gap

  • State in which the child already comprehend words but

they can not produce them on demand

  • Show a C-P gap in knowledge of vocabulary for a long time

(adults: 2nd Language Acquisition)

  • Even a child (12-14 month) who hasn’t produced any word,

comprehend many words even before they speak for the first time

IN SHORT: Children know more than they say!

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide55

Acquisition of Meaning Vocabulary Burst

Vocabulary Burst

  • Sudden, large increase in vocabulary
  • Takes place after an initial production of about 50 words

- most of them are nouns

- also referred to as ‘the naming explosion’

- related to word retrieval abilities

  • First-born children are more likely to show this ‘burst’ than

the following children of the same family!

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide56

Acquisition of Meaning Fast-Mapping

Fast-Mapping

  • how rapid & accurate the process of word-learning takes place
  • 9-12 words a day
  • Mostly takes place without explicit instruction

 Definition of words change over time

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide57

Acquisition of Meaning Semantic Contrast

Semantic Contrast

  • Different words have different meaning
  • Principle of Mutual Exclusivity
  • Hierarchy of concepts are used to interpret new words
  • Ellen Markman (1994)

- how children assign meanings to words by introducing

the word biff to different groups of preschoolers

  • Assists children in their task of learning thousands

of words in a short time!

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide58

Acquisition of Meaning

Vanessa Mosel

Matr. Nr.: ES0221173400

Hauptstudium, TN

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide59

Acquisition of Meaning

  • Content
  • Semantic/Thematic Roles and Relations
  • Interpretation of Pronouns
  • Presupposition: Understanding the Common Ground
  • Children’s knowledge of the Count/Mass Distinction and Telicity
  • Conclusion

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide60

Acquisition of Meaning

  • I. Semantic/Thematic Roles and Relations
  • The one-word speech of children expresses the basic set of thematic roles
  • a) object – milk said when reaching for milk
  • b) action – go spoken when Daddy was going out the door
  • c) instrument – knife spoken when mother cutting meat

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide61

Acquisition of Meaning

  • I. Semantic/Thematic Roles and Relations
  • First word combinations can also express the basic set of thematic relations
  • a) action/object – Bite finger
  • b) object/location – Car garage
  • c) action/location – Sit bed

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide62

Acquisition of Meaning

  • II. Interpretation of Pronouns
  • Ernie hit him. Ernie
  • Ernie hit him.
  • Adults know (Principle P) that Ernie could not also be him
  • Principle P > pragmatic principle
  • Children will point to a picture in which Ernie is hitting himself

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide63

Acquisition of Meaning

  • II. Interpretation of Pronouns
  • Explanation:
  • Is it the case that children do not have the Principle P as part of their linguistic competence?
  • The interpretation of pronouns have to do with their knowledge of pragmatics, how to use language effectively in context, and not with their knowledge of grammar
      • Some aspects of syntax are available very early, while certain aspects of pragmatic knowledge develop later

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide64

Acquisition of Meaning

  • III. Presupposition: Understanding the Common Ground
  • 1. Factive/ non factive verbs
  • factive verbs: such as know, remember > carry presupposition
  • Non-factive verbs: such as think, guess > do not carry presupposition
  • Example a) Romeo knew that Juliet was dead
  • b) Romeo thought Juliet was dead

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide65

Acquisition of Meaning

  • III. Presupposition: Understanding the Common Ground
  • 2. definite/ indefinite determiner
  • A definite determiner presuppose the existence of the object, existence is known by speaker and hearer
  • An indefinite determiner is used when the speaker does not wish to refer to a specific character, or wants to introduce a character first

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide66

Acquisition of Meaning

III. Presupposition: Understanding the Common Ground

3. Experimental studies (a versus the)

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide67

Acquisition of Meaning

  • IV. Children’s knowledge of the Count/Mass Distinction and Telicity
  • 1. Mass nouns (atelic event: consume ale)
  • if we take some water and add more water to it, it is still water, need a measure to quantize them (e.g. a glass of water)

2. Count nouns (telic events: consume a beer)

  • Inherently quantized, have an endpoint which delimits them

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide68

Acquisition of Meaning

  • IV. Children’s knowledge of the Count/Mass Distinction and Telicity
  • Example a) John consumed ale for an hour
  • b) John consumed a beer for an hour
  • Telicity is compositionally determined, which means that it is dependent on linguistic structure and grammatical principles

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide69

Acquisition of Meaning

  • IV. Children’s knowledge of the Count/Mass Distinction and Telicity
  • In English:
  • Children use past tense -ed on verbs describing telic events
  • Adults show the opposite tendency, they use -ed more often with atelic verbs
  • How can we explain this?
  • The aspect-before-tense hypothesis

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7

slide70

Acquisition of Meaning

V. Conclusion

“ Thus even though all children must learn every word of their target language, certain aspects of linguistics may not have to be learned and are good candidates to be part of unlearned properties of the human mind”

Statement from:

Language and the Mind Summer Term 2006 Group 7