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“Adding Ad Hoc Network Capabilities to Cellular IP”. By: Rahul Bhan, Alan Croswell, Kalpen Dedhia, Wayzen Lin, Michael Manteo, Shahmil Merchant, Ambika Pajjuri, John Thomas. Project Goals. Enabling Cellular IP to function with an Ad Hoc Network (DSR)

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adding ad hoc network capabilities to cellular ip

“Adding Ad Hoc Network Capabilities to Cellular IP”

By:

Rahul Bhan, Alan Croswell, Kalpen Dedhia, Wayzen Lin, Michael Manteo,Shahmil Merchant, Ambika Pajjuri,

John Thomas

project goals
Project Goals
  • Enabling Cellular IP to function with an Ad Hoc Network (DSR)
  • Enabling the Ad Hoc Network to gain access to the greater Internet through Cellular IP
motivation
Motivation
  • DSR establishes intra-domain communications between its members, but contact with external networks (such as the Internet) remain outside its scope
  • Mobile terminals within a cell can spawn ad hoc networks on-demand to provide service to nodes suffering from severe signal degradation or loss
design challenges
Design Challenges
  • Interoperability of CIP and DSR
    • DSR is on-demand
    • CIP requires regular paging updates
    • Merging two disparate protocols
    • CIP is user level, DSR is kernel level
    • Driver and OS service Incompatibilities
slide5

Transport

Corresponding node

Ad hoc node

Mobile IP

Foreign Agent (CIP GW)

Home Agent

Foreign Agent (CIP GW)

Home Agent

CIP Network

CIP Network

IP

Ad hoc Network

Ad hoc Network

IP Network

Figure 1: CIP/DSR Architecture (Detailed)

slide6

HA1

MIP

H1

None

Internet / MIP

GW1 / FA1

CIP / MIP

BS1

CIP Domain

CIP

MT1

DSR / CIP / MIP

MT2

DSR / CIP / MIP

MT3

MT4

DSR Domain

DSR / CIP / MIP

DSR / CIP / MIP

Figure 2: CIP/DSR Architecture

project architecture
Project Architecture
  • DSR mobile terminal – A mobile terminal that can not receive the periodic beacon signal transmitted by the CIP base station (MT2 – MT4)
  • Mobile Gateway – A mobile terminal that is within a CIP coverage area (MT1) and is also a member of an Ad Hoc network
  • CIP infrastructure – Consists of base stations which also serve as routers (BS1) and a gateway (GW1)
  • Corresponding nodes – Additional node that communicates with mobile terminals (H1)
project implementation
Project Implementation
  • System Requirements
    • All mobile terminals are CIP and DSR capable
    • CIP BS beacon signal must contain FA metadata
    • CIP and DSR must interoperate only at mobile gateway
      • Addressing issues
    • DSR mobile terminal registration process
triggering mechanism
Triggering Mechanism
  • The receipt of the CIP BS beacon signal will be used to decide whether to implement DSR or CIP at mobile terminals

If (beacon signal is received) {

default gateway = CIP BS;

}

else default gateway = DSR interface;

beacon signal
Beacon Signal
  • Cellular IP can include the following info:
    • The IP address of the CIP Gateway
    • The IP address of the Foreign Agent
  • This information will be cached in the mobile gateway, thereby making it accessible to the Ad Hoc network
registration
Registration
  • An on-demand option
    • A DSR node that wishes to connect to the Internet may do so by periodic registration
  • Resolves mobility issues
    • Macro-mobility
      • Movement from MIP foreign agent to foreign agent
      • Notifies new FA with need for COA - MIP
    • Micro-mobility
      • Movement within a domain with one common FA
      • Updates the CIP routes that are maintained by the BS to find the general location within the domain - CIP
      • Updates the route cache in DSR
cip dsr interoperability
CIP/DSR Interoperability
  • CIP BS maintains IP to MAC address mapping within its routing table
    • Mapping is obtained by registration
  • DSR External network routing is used to get packets from mobile terminal to mobile gateway
  • CIP BS routing table is used to get Ad Hoc destined packets to the mobile gateway
  • Mobile Gateway is required to move the packet from user space to kernel space and vice versa
cip dsr interoperability cont
CIP/DSR Interoperability (Cont.)
  • Changes to CIP
    • Bridging software to allow user level CIP stack to communicate with kernel level DSR code
    • Dynamic MAC-IP address mapping
test bed
Test Bed
  • Test-bed includes 3 nodes
    • One (1) CIP BS/GW
      • Due to a lack of materials, we collapse the majority of the CIP domain to a single node
    • Two (2) ad hoc nodes running DSR/CIP/MIP
      • Deployed in a straight line to avoid direct communications with the CIP base station
      • Mac Filtering is used to prevent Beacon signal reception by one Ad Hoc node
      • Ensures that Mobile Gateway is always used
slide15

128.59.69.69

CIP BS

CIP

MT1

Mobile Gateway

CIP/DSR

128.59.69.71

Ad Hoc Node

DSR

128.59.69.70

Figure 3: Test Bed

results
Results
  • Interoperability between DSR and CIP
    • Ad hoc node able to pass packets through gateway (DSR) to BS (CIP)
  • DSR patch available for FreeBSD 4.2
lessons learnt
Lessons Learnt
  • Ensure that implementation matches documentation
    • DSR kernel behaves in a manner incongruous with RFC Drafts
  • Ensure hardware is compatible with required drivers and OS’s (FreeBSD 2.2.7)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Benefits to Cellular IP
    • Adds robustness
    • Provides temporary route alternative
  • Benefits to an Ad Hoc network
    • Provides accessibility to Internet on demand
    • Enables Ad Hoc network to function as its own entity by choice
special thanks
Special Thanks
  • Sanghyo Kim
  • Seung-Bum Lee
  • Jesse Moses
  • COMET LAB