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A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development 6e. Chapter Sixteen: Schools, Achievement, and Work. John W. Santrock. Schools. Constructivist and direct instruction approaches Constructivist approach

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a topical approach to life span development 6e
A Topical Approach toLife-Span Development 6e

Chapter Sixteen:

Schools, Achievement, and Work

John W. Santrock

  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
    • Constructivist approach
      • Emphasizes child’s active construction of knowledge and understanding; reflection and critical thinking
      • Teacher provides support for students exploring

their world and developing knowledge

      • Today: opportunities and collaboration stressed
      • Criticisms: not enough discipline, too relativistic and vague
  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
    • Direct instruction approach
      • Structured, teacher-centered/controlled
      • Criticisms: creates passive learners, few critical thinking challenges
    • Many recommend: effective teachers use direct and constructivist instruction together
  • Accountability
    • State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role —No Child Left Behind
    • Critics argue that they lead to
      • Single score being used as sole predictor
      • Teaching to test; use of memorization
      • Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills
  • Schools and developmental status
    • Early childhood education
      • The norm in many states, private and publicly funded
      • Many ways young children are educated
    • The child-centered kindergarten
      • Emphasizes the whole child
        • Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development
        • Needs, interests, and learning style
        • Emphasizes learning process
  • Schools and developmental status
    • Montessori approach
      • Originally developed for MR children, then for poor
      • Teacher is facilitator
      • Children encouraged to be early decision makers
      • Fosters independence and cognitive development skills
      • De-emphasizes verbal interactions
      • Criticisms vary
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Education
    • Developmentally appropriate practice
      • focuses on age/individual (uniqueness) appropriateness
      • Recently: more focus on sociocultural factors
    • Developmentally inappropriate practice
      • direct instruction, extensive use of drill/practice, relies on paper-and-pencil activities given to large groups
      • Children show slower development
  • Education for disadvantaged children
    • 1965 – Project Head Start
      • U.S. programs vary for low-income children
      • Proven positive and quality experiences
      • Not all U.S. programs created equal in quality
      • Most successful: well-designed and well-implemented
    • Controversies in early childhood education
      • Include both academic and constructivist approaches
  • Elementary education
    • Change from “home-child’’ to “school-child”
    • New roles and obligations
    • Too often, early schooling has more negative feedback; lowers child’s self-esteem
    • Teachers often pressured to cover curriculum;
      • Tight scheduling; may harm children
  • Educating adolescents
    • Transition to Middle or Junior High School
      • Independent from parent monitoring; more choices
      • Physical and bodily image changes, cognitive changes
      • Impersonal structure, multiple teachers, stressful times
      • “Top dog phenomenon”
    • Benefits
      • More opportunities, friends, challenges, feel grown up
      • More subject choices, intellectual work challenges
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
    • Fears: junior highs being “watered-down” high schools, mimicked curriculum, schedules
      • There are biological, psychological differences
    • Carnegie report:
      • U.S. middle schools: massive, impersonal, and lacking
      • Recommended complete overhaul and changes: more flexible curriculum, more fitness-health programs
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
    • High School
      • Concerns about education and students
        • Needs pathway to student identity achievement
        • Graduate with inadequate skills
        • Enter college needing remediation classes
        • Student drop out rates decreasing today
          • Ethnic and racial differences
          • Gender differences
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
    • Effective programs that discourage high school dropping out include
      • Bill and Melinda Gates foundation funding
      • “I Have A Dream” program
        • Projects adopt entire public grade level or cohorts in housing projects; gives college tuition to high school grads
      • Reading, tutoring, counseling, mentoring programs
  • College and Adult Education
    • Transition to College
      • Replays the top-dog phenomenon
      • Many of same benefits found in high school
      • Movement to a larger, more impersonal school
      • Interact with peers of more diverse backgrounds
      • Increased focus on achievement and assessment
      • More opportunities to explore lifestyles and values
      • Many experience more stress and depression
  • College and Adult Education
    • Adult education includes
      • Literacy training, community development
      • University credit programs, on-the-job training
      • Continuing professional education
    • Women — the majority of adult learners
    • Occurs in many forms, offered by many sources
      • Individual reasons for attending adult ed/college vary
  • Educating children with disabilities
    • Approximately 13.5% (ages 3 to 21) in United States receive special education or related services
    • Learning disability:
      • Difficulty learning/understanding/doing math
      • Gender differences: “Referral bias”?
        • Boys are 3x more diagnosed as girls
      • Diagnosis difficult; guidelines vary among states
  • Educating children with disabilities
    • Dyslexia:
      • Severe impairment in ability to read and spell
      • Brain scans used; difficulty integrating information
    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
      • Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity; onset in childhood
      • Definitive causes unknown; in DSM-IV
      • Medication is common treatment; other treatments vary
      • Stricter behavioral school rules “illuminate” these
  • Educating children with disabilities
    • Autism spectrum disorders
      • Autistic disorder: severe; onset in first three years
      • Asperger syndrome: mild impairments: obsessiveness
      • No proof of being caused by family socialization
      • Affects about 1 million children today
  • Educating children with disabilities
    • Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act; renamed as IDEA in 2004
      • Individualized education plan (IEP) — written program tailored to child with disability
      • Least restrictive environment (LRE) — child with disability educated in setting similar to where other children educated
      • Inclusion — educating child with special education needs in regular classroom
  • Socioeconomic status and ethnicity
    • Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school
      • Schools in poor areas
        • Underfunded, low test scores and graduation rates
        • Young inexperienced teachers, largely segregated
        • Rote learning promoted
      • More minorities put in remedial/special education classes, suspended from school
      • Asians and Whites more likely put in advanced classes
  • SES and ethnicity
    • Improving relationships among ethnically diverse
      • Turn class into jigsaw classroom
      • Positive personal contact with diverse other students
      • Engage in perspective taking; reduce bias
      • View school and community as a team
        • Comprehensive school plan, assessment strategy, and staff development plan
        • Mental health/support team
        • Parents’ program
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
    • Extrinsic
      • Activity is means to an end
      • Often motivated by rewards and punishment
    • Intrinsic
      • Activity is an end in itself
      • Self-determination and personal choices
      • Personal responsibility for behavior encouraged
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
    • Developmental shifts
      • Intrinsic motivation increases with age for most
        • Decreases in early high school
      • Greatest extrinsic increase and intrinsic decrease between sixth and seventh grade
        • Blamed on impersonalization experiences, increased evaluations (standardized tests) and competition
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
    • Conclusions
      • Create stimulating cognitive environments
      • Promote more self-responsibility for student learning
      • Some rewards can undermine learning; rewards most effective with high interest
      • Rewards convey mastery information
  • Mastery motivation and mindset
    • Mastery Motivation
      • Mastery orientation— task-oriented; concerned with learning strategies
      • Helpless orientation— one seems trapped by difficulty and attributes one’s difficulty to a lack of ability
      • Performance orientation— achievement outcomes; winning matters
  • Mastery motivation and mindset
    • Mindset
      • Cognitive view of oneself
      • Fixed mindset: “carved in stone”
      • Growth mindset: belief in change
      • Promotes optimistic or pessimistic outlook
      • Shaping begins due to interactions with others
        • Growth mindset shows higher achievement results
    • Self-Efficacy
      • Belief that one can master a situation/have good results
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
    • Self-efficacy and achievement improve when individuals set goals that are
      • Specific
      • Proximal (short-term)
      • Challenging
    • Can set both long and short-term goals
    • Expectations linked to outcomes/efforts
      • Setting highest standards that can be achieved is best
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
    • Purpose
      • Accomplish something meaningful to one’s self; contribute something to the world beyond one’s self
      • Teachers, parents convey importance of goals; should discuss where goals lead to (long-term picture)
      • Negative influences
        • Some TV/media, violent models of aggression/video games, unrealistic views of the world, passive learning, stereotyping, and other distractions
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
    • Purpose
      • Technology concerns for children, emerging adults
        • Computer and Internet
        • Online social environments (MySpace, Facebook)
        • Proper use, restrictions can be beneficial
      • Internet and aging adults
        • Fastest growing population of users
        • Search for information, use for fast communication
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • Aging and culture
      • Good life based on health, security, kinship network
      • Collectivistic cultures (e.g. China, Japan) have high respect for older persons than individualistic cultures like United States
        • Possess valuable knowledge, control key family resources, remain “useful,” aging role changes have greater capacity, integrated extended family, role continuity throughout life span
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • Socioeconomic status (SES)
      • Grouping by occupational, educational, and economic similarities
      • SES differences are proxy for material, human, and social capital within and beyond the family
    • SES variations in neighborhoods
      • Affect children’s adjustment: disadvantages/advantages
      • Crime and isolation linked to low self-esteem, distress
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • SES differences
      • Lower-SES parents
        • More concerns with child conformity to society, home of strong parental authority, corporal punishment use and more directive than interactive communication
      • Higher-SES parents
        • Concerned with delayed gratification, discipline rules discussed with children, less physical punishment, more interactive conversation
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • Poverty
      • Challenges of poverty have impact on adult lives
      • 2006: 17% of children under age 18 in poverty
      • U.S. poverty level demarcated by family structure and ethnic lines; minorities overrepresented
      • Psychological impact
        • Powerless, less financial resources, alternatives are restricted; environmental inequities is damaging
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • Families and poverty
      • Links between economic well-being, parental behavior, and social adjustment
      • Feminization of poverty
      • Programs that have made an positive impact
        • Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)
        • New Hope Program
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • SES, poverty, and aging
      • Older adults in poverty linked to increased physical and mental health problems
      • Poverty among older minorities 2 to 3 times higher
      • Retirement forces reduced income and spending
        • Expenses, cost-of-living increases
        • Social security for those over 65 years
  • Ethnicity
    • United States is more ethnically diverse than ever before
      • Immigration
        • High rates impact on ethnic population growth
        • Special stressors for immigrants (language, changed SES, support system separation, struggle to adapt but preserve ethnic identity)
        • Acculturation: parents and children often at different stages of the process
  • Ethnicity and SES
    • Research unclear due to methods used
    • Ethnicity and families
      • Ethnic group variations in size, structure, composition, kinship network, levels of education and income
      • Highest risks of poverty
        • Single or uneducated parents
        • All parents face childrearing challenges
        • Greatest harm to children
  • Ethnicity and culture
    • Differences and diversity
      • Historical, economic, and social experiences produce differences between minority groups
      • Stereotyping of perceived deficits are harmful
      • Great diversity between groups seen as “one”
        • Latinos: experiences of Cubans and Puerto Ricans
        • Asians: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai
    • Ethnicity and aging
      • Face problems of racism, ageism, and sexism for women
careers work and retirement
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Developmental Changes
    • Young children
      • Idealistic fantasies about what to be when they grow up
    • High school
      • Serious career decisions as different options explored
    • College
      • Choose major/specialization leading to work in a field
    • Early adulthood
      • Start full-time occupation
careers work and retirement1
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Development
    • Match personality type to career
      • Realistic: prefer solitude, being outdoors
      • Investigative: interested in ideas, intellectualist
      • Artistic: creative, innovative ways for self-expression
      • Social: helping orientation, desire to be with people
      • Enterprising: dominating, good at persuasion
      • Conventional: detail-oriented, prefer highly structured situations
careers work and retirement2
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Development
    • Important aspect of choosing a career — match career to one’s values
    • Monitoring the Occupational Outlook
    • Labor force participation of women increasing
    • Work in Adolescence
      • 90% receive high school diplomas
      • 75% work part-time and attend school
careers work and retirement3
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work in Adolescence
    • U.S. high school students
      • 75% work part-time and attend school
      • Most work 16-20 hours per week
      • Most work in service jobs
    • Work more than in other developed countries; less than developing countries
careers work and retirement4
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
    • Emerging adulthood
      • Many variations of work patterns exist in merging roles of student and worker
      • Co-op programs, some dropouts, most graduate
      • Transition strongly influenced by level of education
      • Special concern: many attending community colleges but drop out or don’t finish
careers work and retirement5
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
    • Adulthood
      • The work landscape
      • National survey: 55% less productive due to stress; 52% considered or made a career change because of stress in the workplace
      • Unemployment
      • Dual-career couples
        • Males assuming more home responsibilities
        • Women assuming more ‘breadwinner’ roles
careers work and retirement6
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
    • Middle Adulthood
      • Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection
      • Recognizing limitations in career progress
      • Deciding whether to change jobs or careers
      • Rebalance family and work
      • Planning for retirement
careers work and retirement7
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
    • Late Adulthood
      • Percentage of older adults who work part-time steadily increased since 1960s
        • Good health
        • Strong psychological commitment to work
        • Distaste for retirement
        • Cognitive ability is best predictor
      • Many participate in unpaid work
      • Age affects many aspects of work
careers work and retirement8
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Retirement
    • Option to retire late twentieth-century phenomenon in United States
    • Today’s workers will spend 10 to 15% of their lives in retirement
    • Flexibility is key factor in adjustment
careers work and retirement9
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Retirement
    • Many return to work after retirement — about 7 million in 2006
    • Adjustment to retirement varies according to life changes and circumstances
    • Retirement planning includes more than successful financial planning