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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Chapter Four: Health. John W. Santrock. Health, Illness, and Disease. Children’s health Changing patterns of illness are of concern Two areas of focus: poverty, prevention Prevention Immunization, efforts to avoid accidents

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  1. A Topical Approach toLIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Four: Health John W. Santrock

  2. Health, Illness, and Disease • Children’s health • Changing patterns of illness are of concern • Two areas of focus: poverty, prevention • Prevention • Immunization, efforts to avoid accidents • Caregivers’ roles important • Affects motor, cognitive, socioemotional development

  3. Health, Illness, and Disease • Children’s health • Poverty • 7% of US children receive no health care • 11 million US preschool children malnourished • Low-income families at highest risk • Malnutrition causes poor resistance to disease

  4. Recommended Immunization Schedule of Normal Infants and Children Fig. 4.1

  5. Health, Illness, and Disease • Adolescents’ health • Many factors and lifestyle linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence • Important models: peers, family, social contexts • Improving adolescent health • Reduce risky behaviors • Encourage healthy behaviors

  6. Health, Illness, and Disease • Emerging and young adults’ health • 2x higher mortality rate of adolescents • Fewer chronic health problems • Fewer colds, respiratory problems • Little thought about lifestyle’s links to health • Poor lifestyles associated with poor health • Impacts on life satisfaction • Negative effects of abusing the body

  7. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health and aging • Alzheimer’s disease linked to aging • 17% of US adults aged 65 to 74 have a disability • 50% of US adults are free of disability until age 85 • Chronic disorders • Slow onset, long duration, higher rates for males • Arthritis, heart conditions, diabetes, asthma • Types vary by gender in middle age

  8. Increasing Disabilities with Age Fig. 4.3

  9. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health and aging • Osteoporosis • Extensive bone tissue loss; affects walking • 80% of US cases: females, broken bones • White, thin, small-framed women • Affects 66% of women over age 60 • Healthy diet, exercise, medications reduce risks

  10. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health and aging • Dementia • Neurological disorder; mental functioning loss • 20% of all over age 80 have dementia • Alzheimer disease (form of dementia) • Progressive, irreversible, gradual loss to death • 2008: about 5.2 million Americans affected • Onset varies: age, genes, lifestyle

  11. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health and aging • Early detection of Alzheimer disease • Abnormal cognitive changes • MRI, other brain scans, medication treatments • Caring for Alzheimer patients • Professionals and support systems necessary • Care is emotionally draining; depression • Respite care: temporary relief

  12. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health and aging • Parkinson disease (a type of dementia) • Chronic, progressive, muscle tremors • Neurotransmitter (dopamine) loss • Drug treatments in early stages; loss of effect over time • Deep brain stimulation shows promise • Dementia causes unknown; no cures to date

  13. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health treatment for older adults • Alternative home, community-based care • Nursing homes used less; need increases as person ages • Nursing homes: Quality varies enormously • Problems: failed inspections, minimal standards, over 1/3 have serious deficits, patient rights issues • Best care promotes ‘patient self-control’

  14. Percentage of Older Adults of Different Ages In U.S. Nursing Homes Fig. 4.5

  15. Health, Illness, and Disease • Health treatment for older adults • Rodin and Langer study: • Self-control in care linked to longevity, activity level, alertness, happiness, needs satisfaction • Choices: food eaten, movies seen, who enters their rooms, when to see visitors • Caring, kind, helpful staff necessary • 18-month increase in life span

  16. Perceived Control and Mortality Fig. 4.7

  17. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Infancy • Nutrition important for development and growth • Breastfeeding versus bottle feeding: • Controversial; breast feeding appears better • Rate has increased in US since 1970 • Benefits: fewer gastro/respiratory infections; reduces risks of asthma, diabetes, SIDS • Lowers risk of ear/skin infections • Benefits mother: lowers risk of diseases

  18. U.S. Breastfeeding Trends Fig. 4.8

  19. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Infancy • When breastfeeding is avoided • Physical difficulties • Lifestyle conditions • HIV virus, taking unsafe drugs • Poor, developing countries • Few/no alternatives, unsanitary health risks • Death rates linked to bottle-feeding

  20. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Malnutrition in infancy • Marasmus — wasting away of body tissues in first year; severe protein-calorie deficiency • Kwashiorkor — deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water • Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development • Lowest SES groups benefited most

  21. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Childhood nutrition • Poor nutrition is special concern for children of many low-income, less educated families in United States • Lower intake of fresh foods, olive oil cooking • Higher intake of processed, canned foods • WIC program serves 7.5 million in United States • Positive influences on participants • Linked to lower risk of being overweight

  22. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Eating behavior and parental feeding styles • Diets worsen as children age • Eating behavior strongly affected by caregivers’ behaviors (scheduling, presence of distractions during meal times, restrictive feeding styles) • Good diet can have long-term effects • Overweight children • Obesity is a serious problem – measured by BMI

  23. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Overweight children • At-risk children dramatically increasing worldwide • Childhood obesity linked to adult obesity (girls more at risk) • Child obesity unrecognized by most parents • Factors affecting weight: • Heredity/genetics • Environment: availability of food, exercise, ‘electronic’ entertainment, leisure time

  24. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Consequences of obesity • Medical and psychological problems • Lower SES at more risk • Low self-esteem, depression, exclusion by peers • Treatment of obesity • Diet, exercise, behavior modification programs • Intervention at home, school: educate about healthy and active lifestyle

  25. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Adolescence • Nutrition and being overweight are key problems • Eat more junk food; parents affect food choices • Overweight adolescents increasing: 11% to 17% • Higher percentage for females • Ethnic variations exist: African American girls, Latino boys at highest risk • Interventions: clinical approaches, exercise, behavior therapy, calorie restriction

  26. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Eating disorders • Anorexia nervosa • Relentless to be thin by starvation • Serious disorder; can lead to death • Affects females 10x more; 1% of those dieting • Most are white females from well-educated, middle- and upper-income families • Family values: high standards, competitive • Media and American culture fashion image

  27. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Eating disorders • Bulimia nervosa • Binge-and-purge eating pattern; use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting • Preoccupied with food; depressed/anxious, fear of being overweight, low self-esteem • Overvalue their body weight and shape • 90% are women, onset in late adolescence • Binge eating often begins in dieting episode

  28. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Adult development and aging • Nutrition and eating behavior are important • Obesity is a problem; 32% of U.S. adults in 2004 • Being overweight increases risk of middle age death — 40% higher • Worldwide: rates for women increasing faster • Environment has dramatic effect — greater access to food/higher fat content

  29. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Adult development • Exercising and diet • Most effective weight loss/control is exercise • 30 minutes a day, healthy meal planning • Daily weighing; keep a food diary • Weight loss from diets may pose health risks • Liquid/very low cal diets affect gallbladder • Successful weight loss; less depressed

  30. Nutrition and Eating Habits • Adult development • Controversy over vitamins and aging • Recent research: • Antioxidants may slow aging • No evidence of extending the life span • Others: vitamins reduce risk of frail/ill life • Possible link: vitamins to cognitive performance

  31. Exercise • Childhood and adolescence • Childhood • All children need daily exercise • Electronics, computers, TV deter activity • Recent study: preschools vary in physical activity, methods of teaching influence activities • Aerobic exercise linked to increased cognitive activity (planning)

  32. Exercise • Childhood and adolescence • Adolescence • Activity usually decreases in adolescence • Recommended: exercise 1 hour per day • Boys more active than girls; body image issues • Childhood habits continue in adolescence • Rates vary by gender: white boys exercise most, African American girls exercise least • Develop ways to encourage exercise

  33. Exercise • Adulthood • Moderate/intense exercise may have physical and psychological gains • Prevention of heart disease, live longer • Aerobic exercise: sustained activity that stimulates heart/lung functioning • Burn 2,000 calories a week to cut heart attack risk by two-thirds • Exercise aids mental and physical health

  34. Exercise • Ways to exercise more • Reduce TV time • Chart your progress • Get rid of excuses • Eliminate “I don’t have time” by making exercise a priority • Imagine the alternative • Learn more about exercise

  35. Exercise • Aging and exercise • Linked to increased longevity • Related to prevention of common chronic diseases • Improves older adults’ cellular functioning • Associated with improvement in disease treatments • Reduce decline of motor skills during aging • Effective in treatment/reduce risk of mental health problems • Linked to improved cognitive/brain functioning

  36. Physical Fitness and Mortality Fig. 4.17

  37. Substance Use • Adolescence and emerging adulthood • Healthy lifestyle: exercise, avoid substance use • Cigarette use — onset in childhood/adolescence • Many alcoholics — onset in high school/college • The earlier the use; the more long-term harm • Trend studies: University of Michigan research • Annually: 50,000 students, 400 schools • Eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders surveyed

  38. Substance Use • Adolescence and emerging adulthood • Trend studies: University of Michigan research • United States — still one of highest use rates worldwide • Declines in alcohol use • 8th graders: 26% (1996) to 16% (2007) • 10th graders: 39% (2001) to 33% (2007) • 12th graders: 72% (1980) to 44% (2007) • Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks in 2 weeks

  39. Binge Drinking in the Adolescence — Early Adulthood Transition Fig. 4.20

  40. Age and Binge Drinking Fig. 4.21

  41. Substance Use • Adolescence • Cigarette smoking – decline since 1996/1997 • 2007 percentage of surveyed still smoking • 8th graders: 7%, 10th graders: 14%,12th graders: 22% • Risk factors: • Having friends who smokes • Weak academic orientation • Low parental support

  42. Substance Use • Adolescence • Alarming recent trend: prescription painkiller use • Vicodin, Oxycontin – narcotics, highly addictive • Adolescents access home medicine cabinet • Parents, peers, social support have role in preventing substance use • Family mealtimes together • Nonuse by friends in school social network • Educational success is good buffer

  43. Substance Use • Emerging adulthood • Critical transition from adolescence to college • Alcohol use is common among many • Binge drinking problems at colleges • Dramatic increase among females • Linked to unprotected sex practices • Alcohol/drug use declines in mid-20s

  44. Substance Use • Older adults • Majority over 65 abstain from alcohol use • Substance use — “invisible epidemic” among elderly • Undetected: illicit and prescription drugs • Consequences of abuse: • Depression, psychological conditions • Inadequate nutrition, frequent falls • Congestive heart failure

  45. Substance Use • Older adults • Moderate use of red wine linked to longevity, better physical and mental health • More open socially, self-mastery • Lowers stress, lower heart disease risk

  46. The End

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