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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Chapter Four: Health. John W. Santrock. Health, Illness, and Disease. Children’s health Changing patterns of illness are of concern Two areas of focus: poverty, prevention Prevention Immunization, efforts to avoid accidents

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a topical approach to life span development

Chapter Four:


John W. Santrock

health illness and disease
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Children’s health
    • Changing patterns of illness are of concern
    • Two areas of focus: poverty, prevention
    • Prevention
      • Immunization, efforts to avoid accidents
      • Caregivers’ roles important
    • Affects motor, cognitive, socioemotional development
health illness and disease3
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Children’s health
    • Poverty
      • 7% of US children receive no health care
      • 11 million US preschool children malnourished
      • Low-income families at highest risk
      • Malnutrition causes poor resistance to disease
health illness and disease5
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Adolescents’ health
    • Many factors and lifestyle linked to both poor health habits and early death in the adult years begin during adolescence
      • Important models: peers, family, social contexts
    • Improving adolescent health
      • Reduce risky behaviors
      • Encourage healthy behaviors
health illness and disease6
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Emerging and young adults’ health
    • 2x higher mortality rate of adolescents
    • Fewer chronic health problems
    • Fewer colds, respiratory problems
    • Little thought about lifestyle’s links to health
      • Poor lifestyles associated with poor health
        • Impacts on life satisfaction
      • Negative effects of abusing the body
health illness and disease7
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health and aging
    • Alzheimer’s disease linked to aging
    • 17% of US adults aged 65 to 74 have a disability
    • 50% of US adults are free of disability until age 85
  • Chronic disorders
    • Slow onset, long duration, higher rates for males
      • Arthritis, heart conditions, diabetes, asthma
      • Types vary by gender in middle age
health illness and disease9
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health and aging
    • Osteoporosis
      • Extensive bone tissue loss; affects walking
      • 80% of US cases: females, broken bones
        • White, thin, small-framed women
      • Affects 66% of women over age 60
      • Healthy diet, exercise, medications reduce risks
health illness and disease10
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health and aging
    • Dementia
      • Neurological disorder; mental functioning loss
      • 20% of all over age 80 have dementia
    • Alzheimer disease (form of dementia)
      • Progressive, irreversible, gradual loss to death
      • 2008: about 5.2 million Americans affected
      • Onset varies: age, genes, lifestyle
health illness and disease11
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health and aging
    • Early detection of Alzheimer disease
      • Abnormal cognitive changes
      • MRI, other brain scans, medication treatments
    • Caring for Alzheimer patients
      • Professionals and support systems necessary
        • Care is emotionally draining; depression
      • Respite care: temporary relief
health illness and disease12
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health and aging
    • Parkinson disease (a type of dementia)
      • Chronic, progressive, muscle tremors
      • Neurotransmitter (dopamine) loss
      • Drug treatments in early stages; loss of effect over time
      • Deep brain stimulation shows promise
    • Dementia causes unknown; no cures to date
health illness and disease13
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health treatment for older adults
    • Alternative home, community-based care
      • Nursing homes used less; need increases as person ages
    • Nursing homes: Quality varies enormously
    • Problems: failed inspections, minimal standards, over 1/3 have serious deficits, patient rights issues
    • Best care promotes ‘patient self-control’
health illness and disease15
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Health treatment for older adults
    • Rodin and Langer study:
      • Self-control in care linked to longevity, activity level, alertness, happiness, needs satisfaction
        • Choices: food eaten, movies seen, who enters their rooms, when to see visitors
      • Caring, kind, helpful staff necessary
      • 18-month increase in life span
nutrition and eating habits
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Infancy
    • Nutrition important for development and growth
    • Breastfeeding versus bottle feeding:
      • Controversial; breast feeding appears better
        • Rate has increased in US since 1970
        • Benefits: fewer gastro/respiratory infections; reduces risks of asthma, diabetes, SIDS
        • Lowers risk of ear/skin infections
        • Benefits mother: lowers risk of diseases
nutrition and eating habits19
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Infancy
    • When breastfeeding is avoided
      • Physical difficulties
      • Lifestyle conditions
      • HIV virus, taking unsafe drugs
    • Poor, developing countries
      • Few/no alternatives, unsanitary health risks
      • Death rates linked to bottle-feeding
nutrition and eating habits20
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Malnutrition in infancy
    • Marasmus — wasting away of body tissues in first year; severe protein-calorie deficiency
    • Kwashiorkor — deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water
    • Nutritional supplements linked to long-term effects on cognitive development
      • Lowest SES groups benefited most
nutrition and eating habits21
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Childhood nutrition
    • Poor nutrition is special concern for children of many low-income, less educated families in United States
      • Lower intake of fresh foods, olive oil cooking
      • Higher intake of processed, canned foods
    • WIC program serves 7.5 million in United States
      • Positive influences on participants
      • Linked to lower risk of being overweight
nutrition and eating habits22
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Eating behavior and parental feeding styles
    • Diets worsen as children age
    • Eating behavior strongly affected by caregivers’ behaviors (scheduling, presence of distractions during meal times, restrictive feeding styles)
    • Good diet can have long-term effects
  • Overweight children
    • Obesity is a serious problem – measured by BMI
nutrition and eating habits23
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Overweight children
    • At-risk children dramatically increasing worldwide
      • Childhood obesity linked to adult obesity (girls more at risk)
      • Child obesity unrecognized by most parents
    • Factors affecting weight:
      • Heredity/genetics
      • Environment: availability of food, exercise, ‘electronic’ entertainment, leisure time
nutrition and eating habits24
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Consequences of obesity
    • Medical and psychological problems
    • Lower SES at more risk
    • Low self-esteem, depression, exclusion by peers
  • Treatment of obesity
    • Diet, exercise, behavior modification programs
    • Intervention at home, school: educate about healthy and active lifestyle
nutrition and eating habits25
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Adolescence
    • Nutrition and being overweight are key problems
      • Eat more junk food; parents affect food choices
    • Overweight adolescents increasing: 11% to 17%
      • Higher percentage for females
      • Ethnic variations exist: African American girls, Latino boys at highest risk
      • Interventions: clinical approaches, exercise, behavior therapy, calorie restriction
nutrition and eating habits26
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Eating disorders
    • Anorexia nervosa
      • Relentless to be thin by starvation
      • Serious disorder; can lead to death
      • Affects females 10x more; 1% of those dieting
      • Most are white females from well-educated,

middle- and upper-income families

        • Family values: high standards, competitive
      • Media and American culture fashion image
nutrition and eating habits27
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Eating disorders
    • Bulimia nervosa
      • Binge-and-purge eating pattern; use of laxatives or self-induced vomiting
      • Preoccupied with food; depressed/anxious, fear of being overweight, low self-esteem
      • Overvalue their body weight and shape
      • 90% are women, onset in late adolescence
      • Binge eating often begins in dieting episode
nutrition and eating habits28
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Adult development and aging
    • Nutrition and eating behavior are important
    • Obesity is a problem; 32% of U.S. adults in 2004
      • Being overweight increases risk of middle age death — 40% higher
      • Worldwide: rates for women increasing faster
      • Environment has dramatic effect — greater access to food/higher fat content
nutrition and eating habits29
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Adult development
    • Exercising and diet
      • Most effective weight loss/control is exercise
        • 30 minutes a day, healthy meal planning
        • Daily weighing; keep a food diary
      • Weight loss from diets may pose health risks
        • Liquid/very low cal diets affect gallbladder
        • Successful weight loss; less depressed
nutrition and eating habits30
Nutrition and Eating Habits
  • Adult development
    • Controversy over vitamins and aging
      • Recent research:
        • Antioxidants may slow aging
        • No evidence of extending the life span
        • Others: vitamins reduce risk of frail/ill life
      • Possible link: vitamins to cognitive performance
  • Childhood and adolescence
    • Childhood
      • All children need daily exercise
      • Electronics, computers, TV deter activity
      • Recent study: preschools vary in physical activity, methods of teaching influence activities
      • Aerobic exercise linked to increased cognitive activity (planning)
  • Childhood and adolescence
    • Adolescence
      • Activity usually decreases in adolescence
      • Recommended: exercise 1 hour per day
      • Boys more active than girls; body image issues
      • Childhood habits continue in adolescence
      • Rates vary by gender: white boys exercise most, African American girls exercise least
      • Develop ways to encourage exercise
  • Adulthood
    • Moderate/intense exercise may have physical and psychological gains
      • Prevention of heart disease, live longer
      • Aerobic exercise: sustained activity that stimulates heart/lung functioning
      • Burn 2,000 calories a week to cut heart attack risk by two-thirds
      • Exercise aids mental and physical health
  • Ways to exercise more
    • Reduce TV time
    • Chart your progress
    • Get rid of excuses
    • Eliminate “I don’t have time” by making exercise a priority
    • Imagine the alternative
    • Learn more about exercise
  • Aging and exercise
    • Linked to increased longevity
    • Related to prevention of common chronic diseases
    • Improves older adults’ cellular functioning
    • Associated with improvement in disease treatments
    • Reduce decline of motor skills during aging
    • Effective in treatment/reduce risk of mental health problems
    • Linked to improved cognitive/brain functioning
substance use
Substance Use
  • Adolescence and emerging adulthood
    • Healthy lifestyle: exercise, avoid substance use
    • Cigarette use — onset in childhood/adolescence
    • Many alcoholics — onset in high school/college
    • The earlier the use; the more long-term harm
    • Trend studies: University of Michigan research
      • Annually: 50,000 students, 400 schools
      • Eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders surveyed
substance use38
Substance Use
  • Adolescence and emerging adulthood
    • Trend studies: University of Michigan research
      • United States — still one of highest use rates worldwide
      • Declines in alcohol use
        • 8th graders: 26% (1996) to 16% (2007)
        • 10th graders: 39% (2001) to 33% (2007)
        • 12th graders: 72% (1980) to 44% (2007)
      • Binge drinking: 5 or more drinks in 2 weeks
substance use41
Substance Use
  • Adolescence
    • Cigarette smoking – decline since 1996/1997
      • 2007 percentage of surveyed still smoking
        • 8th graders: 7%, 10th graders: 14%,12th graders: 22%
      • Risk factors:
        • Having friends who smokes
        • Weak academic orientation
        • Low parental support
substance use42
Substance Use
  • Adolescence
    • Alarming recent trend: prescription painkiller use
      • Vicodin, Oxycontin – narcotics, highly addictive
      • Adolescents access home medicine cabinet
    • Parents, peers, social support have role in preventing substance use
      • Family mealtimes together
      • Nonuse by friends in school social network
      • Educational success is good buffer
substance use43
Substance Use
  • Emerging adulthood
    • Critical transition from adolescence to college
      • Alcohol use is common among many
      • Binge drinking problems at colleges
        • Dramatic increase among females
        • Linked to unprotected sex practices
    • Alcohol/drug use declines in mid-20s
substance use44
Substance Use
  • Older adults
    • Majority over 65 abstain from alcohol use
    • Substance use — “invisible epidemic” among elderly
      • Undetected: illicit and prescription drugs
      • Consequences of abuse:
        • Depression, psychological conditions
        • Inadequate nutrition, frequent falls
        • Congestive heart failure
substance use45
Substance Use
  • Older adults
    • Moderate use of red wine linked to longevity, better physical and mental health
      • More open socially, self-mastery
      • Lowers stress, lower heart disease risk