Organic Compounds. Organic Compound- Compounds that contain carbon atoms Ex: Glucose (sugar) C 6 H 12 O 6. Inorganic Compounds. Inorganic Compound- Compounds that do not contain carbon atoms. ex: water- H 2 0, salt-NaCl. Why is carbon important?.
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Organic Compounds • Organic Compound- Compounds that contain carbon atoms Ex: Glucose (sugar) C6H12O6
Inorganic Compounds • Inorganic Compound- Compounds that do not contain carbon atoms. ex: water- H20, salt-NaCl
Why is carbon important? • Carbon is found in many different compounds because carbon has 6 electrons, 4 of which are found in the valence (outer) shell.
Why is carbon important? • Carbon has the ability to covalently bond to other carbon atoms and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen.
Covalent Bond • Covalent bond: bond created when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. • Carbon can form a single bond, by sharing one pair of electrons, a double bond by sharing two pairs of electrons, or a triple bond, by sharing three pairs of electrons.
Example • Methane: CH4 • Main component of natural gas
CHNO Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are the main components found in all living things. (CHON) These elements are found in 96% of all life on earth.
Building Blocks • Monomeris a smaller, simpler molecule that can bind with other monomers to form larger, more complex molecules called polymers. • Large polymers are called macromolecules. Macromolecules are organic compounds.
Monomers Together • Condensation Reaction = the process of monomers joining together to form a polymer, and a water molecule is released. • Also called Dehydration Reaction (Synthesis)
Breaking it Down • Hydrolysis =the process where water is used to break down polymers into monomers
Energy • Adenosine Triphosphate =ATP When the bonds are broken between the phosphate groups, energy is released.
Macromolecules Chapter 3 Section 2
Chapter 3 LET’S REVIEW! What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer? What is an organic compound? 3. What 4 elements make up 95% of all living things?
One link in the chain is one single unit or monomer Mono - one Several links (monomers) together is a polymer. Poly - many
Organic Compounds • All contain the element Carbon. • They also contain other common elements, which means you are made mostly of… CHNO
Four main classes of organic compounds… • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids • Made mostly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (and sometimes N,S, and P)
Carbohydrates • Common name: • Sugar or starches • Elements Composed of: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen
Carbohydrates • Units (Building Blocks): • Monosaccharides= simple sugar • Ex. Glucose, fructose • Complex form: • Disaccharide= double sugar • Ex. Sucrose= table sugar • Polysaccharide • Ex. Starch, glycogen • Bonding process: • Condensation Reaction
Carbohydrates • Common Examples: • Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose and Cellulose • Functions: • Mid-term energy storage
Carbohydrates • Draw carbohydrate • Polysaccharides • Starch (many glucoses)- energy storage in plants • Glycogen- energy storage in liver and muscles of animals • Cellulose- structural molecule in cell wall of plants • Chitin- structural molecule in exoskeleton of arthropods
Lipids • Common name: • Fats, oils, waxes, steroids • Elements composed of: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen
Lipids • Units (building blocks): • 1 glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules • Complex Form: • Triglyceride • Type of Bonding:
Lipids • Common Examples: • Functions: • Long term energy storage, components of hormones, components of cell membrane
Lipids • Draw Lipids • Triglycerides • Oils- long term storage of energy in seeds and fruits • Fats- long term storage of energy in higher animals
Proteins • Common name: • Proteins • Elements composed of: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Sulfur
Proteins • Units (building blocks): • Amino acids • Complex Form: • Polypeptide • Type of Bonding: • Peptide bond • Bonding Process • Condensation Reaction
Proteins • Common Examples: • Hemoglobin, Keratin, Collagen • Functions: • Enzymes, structural, transport, storage, protective, hormones, membrane proteins
Protein • Make a drawing • Collagen-structural, tendon, hide, muscles • Keratin- structural, wool, fingernails, feathers • Insulin- regulatory, hormones • Egg White- Storage • Hemoglobin- transport protein that combines easily with oxygen.
Nucleic Acids • Common name: • Nucleic acid • Elements composed of: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Phosphorous
Nucleic Acid • Units (building blocks): • nucleotides • Type of Bonding: • Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides
Nucleic Acid • Common Examples: • RNA, DNA • Functions: • Codes for all proteins in the body
Nucleic Acids • DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid, part of chromosomes of cell, carrier of genetic info • RNA- Ribonucleic Acid, transcribes message of the DNA so that proteins can be made inside the cell
The Digestive System • A long hollow tube called the Gastrointestinal Tract (GI Tract) has the purpose of breaking down macromolecules that you eat into molecules that your body can absorb.
Process of Digestion • 1. Ingestion: taking food in • 2. Digestion: breaking food down • 3. Movement: from one segment of the tract to another
Process of Digestion • 4. Absorption: when nutrients cross the wall of the GI tract and enter the cells lining in order to enter the blood stream • 5. Elimination: undigested molecules are removed
Pathway of Food • Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Rectum Anus
The Mouth • The first stages of digestion occurs here. • First: mechanical Digestion or chewing occurs here. • Second: The food meets saliva (a mixture of water, mucus, and a digestive enzyme called amylase) • Amylase: helps break starches (polysaccharide) into glucose (monosaccharides)!
The Pharynx • The location where the GI tract and respiratory system cross over.
The Esophagus • Long muscular tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach muscles in the esophagus wall.
Stomach • J shaped muscular organ that lies on the left side of the body beneath the diaphragm. • Stores food • Stomach acid and gastric enzymes called pepsin begin to break down protein.
Small Intestine • Digests carbohydrates, fats, and completes the digestion of proteins. • ABSORBS nutrients
Large Intestine • Absorbs water to prevent dehydration • Absorbs vitamins (B and K) • Forms and rids the body of feces through anus
Accessory Organs • Pancreas: Secretes pancreatic fluid to the small intestine • Lipase enzyme: breaks down fat molecules to free fatty acids, diglycerides and monoglycerides.
Accessory Organs • Liver • Produces bile, destroys old blood cells, detoxifies blood, stores iron, and helps regulate cholesterol levels. • Bile: ENZYME produced by liver, stored in gall bladder helps to further process of digestions. • Gall Bladder: stores bile
6 Classes of Nutrients • 3 that provide the body with energy, promote growth and development, and regulate metabolism. • Carbohydrates (monomer: monosaccharide) • Proteins (monomer: amino acid) • Lipids (monomer: fatty acid)
6 Classes of Nutrients • Minerals: inorganic substance that occurs naturally in ground. • Living organisms require them for parts of cells, body fluids, and structural components of tissue. • Ex: calcium: bones and muscle contraction and phosphorous: bone, phospholipids, ATP
6 Classes of Nutrients • Water • Vitamins: organic compounds that the body uses for metabolic purposes. • Unable to produce these on its own • Many are co-enzymes (enzyme helpers) • Ex: Vitamin D, B, C, ect