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“That's one small step for a man , a giant leap for mankind”. (Neil Armstrong). Sara Hejazi Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch. The main sections of APA research papers are:. Title page Abstract Introduction Method Result Discussion References Appendices. Good Title.

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slide1

“That's one small step for a man,

a giant leap for mankind”

(Neil Armstrong)

Sara Hejazi

Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch

the main sections of apa research papers are
The main sections of APA research papers are:
  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Result
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Appendices
good title
Good Title
  • making a clear compelling first impression
  • including key terms
  • trimming details; containing central idea
  • excluding synonyms
  • writing phrasally not sententially
  • avoiding numerals
  • using less punctuation
good t itle
Good Title
  • using less acronyms
  • capitalizing initials
  • avoiding overdramatizing or overstating
  • avoiding obscene language or slangs
  • avoiding abusive allusions
  • using the right terminology
  • ensuing exact translation
good title1
Good Title
  • being succinct (less than 18 words)
  • being specific, not general
  • not needing to be outstandingly creative
  • include “cases”…
  • avoiding quoting
  • being Entitled by it
slide6

Running head: EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 1 Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional InformationChristina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. KensingerBoston CollegeAuthor Note Christina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Department of Psychology, Boston College. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BCS 0542694 awarded to Elizabeth A. Kensinger. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christina M. Leclerc, Department of Psychology, Boston College, McGuinn Hall, Room 512, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. E-mail:christina.leclerc.1@bc.edu

author s name byline and institutional affiliation
Author’s name (Byline) and Institutional Affiliation

Author’s name (byline):

  • First name, middle initial(s), and last name
  • Omit all titles (e.g., Dr., Professor) and degrees (e.g., PhD, EdD).

Institutional affiliation:

  • the location where the author or authors were when the research was conducted, which is usually an institution
  • Include no more than two affiliations per author
  • If an author has no institutional affiliation, list the city and state of residence below the author’s name.
slide9

Running head: EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 1 Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional InformationChristina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. KensingerBoston CollegeAuthor Note Christina M. Leclerc and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Department of Psychology, Boston College. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BCS 0542694 awarded to Elizabeth A. Kensinger. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christina M. Leclerc, Department of Psychology, Boston College, McGuinn Hall, Room 512, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. E-mail:christina.leclerc.1@bc.edu

author note
Author Note
  • First paragraph: Complete departmental affiliation
  • Second paragraph: Changes of affiliation (if any)
  • Third paragraph: Acknowledgment and Special circumstances
  • Fourth paragraph: Person to contact (mailing address, e-mail)
abstract
Abstract

An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article

A good abstract is:

  • accurate
  • nonevaluative
  • coherent and readable
  • concise
slide12

An abstract should describe

  • the problem under investigation
  • the participants
  • the method
  • the basic findings
  • the conclusions and implications
slide13

EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 2Abstract Age differences were examined in affective processing, in the context of a visual search task. Young and older adults were faster to detect high arousal images compared with low arousal and neutral items. Younger adults were faster to detect positive high arousal targets compared with other categories. In contrast, older adults exhibited an overall detection advantage for emotional images compared with neutral images. Together, these findings suggest that older adults do not display valence-based effects on affective processing at relatively automatic stages.Keywords: aging, attention, information processing, emotion, visual search

introduction
Introduction
  • Introduce the problem
  • Explore importance of the problem
  • Describe relevant scholarship
  • State hypotheses and their correspondence to research design
slide15

EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 3 Effects of Age on Detection of Emotional Information Frequently, people encounter situations in their environment in which it is impossible to attend to all available stimuli. It is therefore of great importance for one’s attentional processes to select only the most salient information in the environment to which one should attend. Previous research has suggested that emotional information is privy to attentional selection in young adults (e.g., Anderson, 2005; Calvo & Lang, 2004; Carretie, Hinojosa, Marin-Loeches, Mecado, & Tapia, 2004; Nummenmaa, Hyona, & Calvo, 2006), an obvious service to evolutionary drives to approach rewarding situations and to avoid threat and danger (Davis & Whalen, 2001; Dolan & Vuilleumier, 2003; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1997; LeDoux, 1995).

6.16 Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses

Alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference

citing references in text
Citing references in text

APA Style uses the author-date citation system. This system allows readers to find the source cited in texts in the reference list, where each source is listed alphabetically(chapter 6)

To insert a citation in text, include the author’s surname and year of publication. For a direct quotation, include the page number or specific location of the phrase or sentences in the original work.

slide17

Here are some examples of how to use the author-date citation when paraphrasing.

Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples…

Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003)

slide20

EFFECTS OF AGE ON DETECTION OF EMOTION 4

Calvo & Lang, 2004; Carretie et al., 2004; Juth, Lundqvist,

Karlsson, & Ohman, 2005; Nummenmaa et al., 2006).

From this research, it seems clear that younger adults show detection benefits for arousing information in the environment. It is less clear whether…

  • Continuity in presentation of idea, 3.05

By using: Punctuation marks, transitional words, time links, cause-effect links, addition links, contrast links…

slide21

…However, despite the preservation of emotion-processing regions with age (or perhaps because of the contrast between the preservation of these regions and age-related declines in cognitive-processing regions; Good et al., 2001; Hedden & Gabrieli, 2004; Ohnishi, Matsuda, Tabira, Asada, & Uno, 2001; Raz, 2000; West, 1996), recent behavioral research has revealed changes that occur with aging in the regulation and processing of emotion. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory…..

  • No capitalization in naming theories, 4.16
slide22

… Similar results have been found when examining eye-tracking patterns: Older adults looked at positive images longer than younger adults did, even when no age differences were observed in looking time for negative stimuli…

  • Using the colon between two grammatically complete clauses
  • Capitalization of words beginning a sentence after a colon, 4.14
slide23

… We hypothesized that on the whole, older adults would be slower to detect information than young adults would be (consistent with Hahn, Carlson, Singer, & Gronlund 2006; Mather & Knight, 2006); the critical question was whether the two age groups would show similar or divergent facilitation effects with regard to the effects of emotion on item detection...

  • Using the semicolon to separate two independent clauses not joined by a conjunction, 4.04
slide24

… This is because there is reason to think that the positivity effect may be operating only at later stages of processing (e.g., strategic, elaborative, and emotion regulation processes) rather than at the earlier stages of processing involved in the rapid detection of information (see Mather & Night, 2005, for discussion)…

  • Using the comma betwixt elements in a series, 4.03
  • Punctuation with citations in parenthetical material, 6.21
slide25

Indeed, a couple of prior studies have provided evidence for intact early processing of emotional facial expressions with aging. Mather and Knight (2006) examined young and older adults’ abilities to detect happy, sad, angry, or neutral faces presented in a complex visual array. Mather and Knight found that…

  • Citing references in text, inclusion of year within paragraph, 6.11, 6.12
slide26

…When angry faces, compared with positive and neutral faces, served as nontarget distractors in the visual search arrays, however, older adults were more efficient in searching, compared with younger adults,…

  • Prefixes and suffixes that do not require hyphens, Table 4.2
method
Method
  • Identify subsections
  • Participant (subject) characteristics
  • Sampling procedures
  • Sample size, power, and precision
  • Measures and Covariates
  • Research design
  • Experimental manipulations or interventions
slide29

Method

Participants

Younger adults (14 women, 10 men, M age= 19.5 years, age range: 18─22 years) were recruited with flyers posted on the Boston College campus. Older adults (15 women, nine men, M age= 76.1, age range: 68─84 years) were recruited through the Harvard Cooperative on Aging (see Table 1, for demographics and test scores).

  • Using numerals to express numbers representing age, 4.31
  • Numbering and discussing tables in text, 5.05
slide30

…Ten pilot participants were asked to…

  • Numbers expressed in words at beginning of sentences, 4.32

Valence and arousal ratings. Valence and arousal were judged on 7-point scales (1= negative valence o or low arousal and 7 = positive valance or high arousal)…

  • Italicization of anchors of a scale, 4.21
results
Results
  • Summarize the collected data and the analysis performed on them
  • Report the data in sufficient detail
  • Do not hide uncomfortable results by omission
results1
Results
  • Recruitment (provide dates defining the periods of recruitment)
  • Statistics and data analysis
  • Ancillary analyses (report any other analysis performed)
  • Participant flow
  • Intervention or manipulation fidelity
  • Adverse events (events with serious consequences)
slide33

Results

…response times (RTs) were analyzed for 24 trials of each target emotion category. RTs for error trials were excluded (less than 5% of all responses) as were RTs that were 3 SD from each participant’s mean…

  • Using abbreviations
  • Symbols, 4.45; Numbers; 4.31

(statistical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, and percentiles and quartiles)

  • Abbreviations accepted as words, 4.24
discussion this caution
DiscussionThis Caution

Examine, interpret, and qualify the results and draw inferences and conclusion from them.

with a clear statement of the support or nonsupport for your original hypotheses.

with a reasoned and justifiable commentary on the importance of your findings.

slide35

…Although the pattern of results for the young adults has differed across studies—in the present study and in some past research, young adults have shown facilitated detection of positive information, whereas in other studies, young adults have shown an advantage for negative information—what is important to note is that the older adults detected both positive and negative stimuli at equal rates.

  • Use of em dash to indicate an interruption in the continuity of a sentence, 4.06
slide36

Refriend References:

Pamphlet by Dr. Ameri

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition), Washington. DC: Author.

www.apastyle.org

www.goodreads.com

www.photo.net

slide37

We shall not cease from exploration

But the end of all our exploring

Shall be to return to where we started

And know it for the first time

(T.S. Eliot)

Thanks