Setting the Stage for War Ch. 18 Sec 1
Factors Fueling WWI • Nationalism • Various Ethnic groups wanted more political power. • Several nationalities were ruled by a single regime. (Austria/Hungary) • Imperialism • Competition for control of Africa, Asia and other parts of the world.
Factors • Militarism • The glorification of armed strength. • They thought that they could achieve goals through the threat or use of force. • By late 1800’s, most nations built large armies. • Nation had to be quick to mobilize • Prepare its army for war. • First modern battleship was launch in 1906(Dreadnought). • Germany soon built similar ships.
System of Alliances • The Triple Alliance • Bismarck fear of French revenge for losing the Alsace-Lorraine. • Bismarck want to keep Franch diplomatically isolated. • Keep the French and Russian from becoming Allies. • 1881, Three Emperors’ League • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. • Soon Fell apart. Rivalry between AH and Russia.
Alliances • Bismarck had Italy join into an alliance with Germany and Aus/Hun. • This isolated France and gave Germany some security for it borders. • Agreed to remain neutral, if the others went to war.
Triple Entente • France was trying to avoid isolation. • Fr. helped Russia out of a financial crisis. • They signed an alliance in 1894. • England soon felt pressured by German naval build-up and looked for an allies. • In 1907, France, England and Russia signed the Triple Entente. • Europe was divided into two camps
Balkan “Powder Keg” • Serbia was an independent state. • It hoped to become larger, by controlling the areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. • Aus/Hun annexed these two provinces. • This angered the Serbs. • Russia also supported the Serbians in its grievance. (Pan-Slavism). • Great Britain was alarmed by Russian influence into this area. • G.B. want to keep Russia out of the Mediterranean. • But, it was more of a rival to the Germans. • Russia and England signed a treaty.
The SPARK • June 28, 1914. • The heir the Aus/Hun throne, Francis Ferdinand visited Sarajevo. • People in Sarajevo want to be with Bosnia. • Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Arch duke. • Some Serbian officals were implicated in the plot.
The Ultimatum • Aus/Hun vowed to punish the Serbs. • They were afaid that russia would become involved. • Aus/Hun made sure that Germany supported them. • An ultimatum was sent to the Serbian government. • If Serbia did not agree to all the terms of the Ultimatum, force might be used. • Serbia agreed to all of the terms except for the last one. • Serbia mobilized it troops. • Aus/Hun declared war on Serbia. • Russia sent troops to the Aus/Hun border to support Serbia. • They also sent troops to the German border. • Germany warned Russia not to mobilize troops on its border.
Let’s Get it ON!!!! • Aug 1 1914, Germany declared war on Russia. • Since Russia was allied with France, Germany declared war on France. • Germany moved to defeat France first. • Germany marched into Belgium, • Belgium signed a treaty not to help any belligerents, or warring countries. • It agreed to stay neutral in any war. • Britain demanded Germany honor treaty. • Germany didn’t and Great Britain declared war on Germany.
Choosing up sides • Japan entered the war on the side of the Allied Powers (GB, RUS, FR) • Wanted to gain Germany colonies in Asia. • Italy entered on the side of the allies. • They signed a secret treaty with Allies. • The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers (Ger, Aus/Hun). • Didn’t like Russian influence in Balkans. • Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.