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Russia. Rise of Russia. Geography Very favorable geographic area (soil, rivers, etc ) Today would be Ukraine and Western Russia Early Invaders Huns, Vikings, Slavs, etc.. Early History Kiev: Rurik, leader of the Rus people, began ruling the area in 862 AD.

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rise of russia
Rise of Russia
  • Geography
      • Very favorable geographic area (soil, rivers, etc)
      • Today would be Ukraine and Western Russia
  • Early Invaders
      • Huns, Vikings, Slavs, etc..
  • Early History
      • Kiev: Rurik, leader of the Rus people, began ruling the area in 862 AD.
      • Yaroslav the Wise: 1019 AD…introduced Pravda Russika (Russian Justice)
  • Early Religion
      • Began to follow the Eastern Orthodox Church
      • Eventually tried to separate to form the Russian Orthodox Church (after Rome and Constantinople had fallen)
russia and the mongols
Russia and the Mongols
  • Social Class System
    • Princes and their families
    • Boyars (nobles)
    • Artisans and Merchants (trade)
    • Peasants (farmers)
  • Attacks
      • Kiev was attacked by Mongol invaders from 1169 to 1203 AD.
      • Mongols came from east of the Ural Mountains (Mongolia and Kazakhstan) and controlled until the late 1400s.
      • Slavs (people that lived in the area) were allowed to be free under the Mongols, as long as they paid taxes.
      • Slavs did not get along will with anyone.
rise of russia1
Rise of Russia
  • Ivan III (Ivan the Great)
      • Ivan III began to push for complete independence from the Mongols (1480 AD).
      • First ruler of the independent state of Russia
      • Ivan III’s rule began the long line of absolute monarchy
      • Moscow became the major city of region
rise of russia2
Rise of RUssia
  • Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
      • Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible): Assumed the throne at 3, began actually ruling at age 17.
      • Took the title of czar (caesar) because he felt like he was the rightful ruler of the Romans and Byzantines
      • Exceptionally cruel…murdered many enemies, even killed his oldest son.
      • Did expand the Russia state (Ukraine to Siberia)
russia isolation and growth
Russia Isolation and Growth
  • Why Isolated?
      • Alphabet and Religion
      • Landlocked by other empires.
  • Peter I (Peter the Great)
      • Became Czar @ 10 yrs old, ruled until 1725.
      • Thought Russia needed to be more like the rest of Europe
      • Peter went to Western Europe to get help against the Ottoman Empire..wanted a warm water port. (Went as a normal guy) He learned many things about how Europe worked. (military strategy)
      • Won wars against Sweden, got access to Baltic Sea, created a new city and capital name St. Petersburg. Westernization!!!!
russian growth
Russian Growth
  • Peter the Great
      • Followed the model of Louis XIV (France) and created a government where he had absolute control.
      • A lot of opposition from nobles, religious leaders, and serfs because their lives got worse
      • Peter was able to greatly expand the power of Russia.
  • Catherine the Great
      • Wife of Peter III (Peter the Great’s Grandson). Took crown when nobles murdered Peter III. (1762-1796)
      • People remained very poor.
      • Won wars against Poland (disappeared until 1919) and the Turks. Gained control of better sea access
      • Also expanded East into Siberia and even to Alaska
russian empire
Russian Empire
  • Russian Unification
      • Vast empire that included many different peoples who had different ethnicities, languages, and religious views
      • Made unification very difficult.
      • Nicholas I: Russification, tried to make all people of Russia follow the same language and religion. Done to prevent nationalism from spreading.
      • During the 1800s, Russia was having problems uniting all the Slavic people and expanding due to losing the Crimean War
russian empire1
Russian Empire
  • Alexander II
      • Realized his country was not as advanced as it needed to be, decided to free the serfs (been forced to live and work in certain areas).
      • Emancipation Edict (1861) officially freed the serfs..not 100% successful (really similar to US and Slavery)
      • Reformed elections and local governments (more democratic) also courts, education and military.
      • Not everyone liked these moves.
russian empire2
Russian Empire
  • Opposition to Alexander’s Reform
      • Many Radicals wanted more change. Wanted land divided equally, etc
      • Used terrorism to get some of those demands met.
      • Eventually Alexander II was killed by a bomb, set off by the People’s Will (Populist Revolutionary Party)
  • After Alexander II’s death
      • Nicholas II took over after Alexander. He tried his best to stamp out liberalism.
      • In riots called pogroms many Jews were massacred. The government did nothing as 100 Jewish villages were pillaged and many were murdered.
      • Workers became increasingly unhappy with the way things were being run.
russian revolution 1905
Russian Revolution--1905
  • Cause
      • Russia lost a war against Japan…humiliating
  • Bloody Sunday
      • Czar Nicolas II’s troops shot innocent people who were striking. This led to conflicts all over Russia.
      • The Revolutionary Forces failed to overthrow the Czar
      • Reasons: Army was loyal, French helped, not all radical groups were united.
      • These would change later!!
russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • Basics
      • Years of war, poverty, and class struggle brought an end to the Czarist Regime in Russia. Revolution Time!
      • WWI showed how weak Russia was. After the war, the soldiers began to side with the demonstrators. R
      • Russian monarchy ended
  • Lenin and Bolsheviks
      • Soviets: Term meaning council…made up by groups that supported Socialism (govt. control of industry)
      • Bolsheviks: More radical group that won control of the Soviets
      • Vladimir Lenin: Leader of the Bolsheviks.
russian revolution1
Russian Revolution
  • Vladimir Lenin:
      • Socialist…all government was turned over to the Soviets
      • Follower of Karl Marx.
      • “Peace, Bread, Land”
      • Would be a hero to all those wanting to lead communist revolutions
  • Communist Party
      • Were able to gain full control of the government in 1917
      • Dissolved the constitutional assembly (democracy)
  • Civil War
      • Russia dropped out of WWI and immediately entered into a Civil War of their own (Communist vs other groups that wanted to restore a monarchy…some of which were Socialist)
      • By the end of 1922, the Communist Red Army had won and Russia became the USSR.
slide24
USSR
  • New Economic Policy (NEP)
      • Major industries remained under govt. control
      • Some smaller free enterprise
      • Collective Farms: Land and labor being pooled together
  • Progress??
      • Soviets tried to fix social issues like women’s rights and education….mixed results
  • Power Struggle
      • Lenin died, power struggle between Leon Trotsky (founder of Red Army) and Joseph Stalin (head of political party)
      • Different views: Trotsky (communism should spread all over the world..more Marxist) vs Stalin (communism should be dominant in one country before spreading around the world)
      • By 1928, Stalin gained control of Party…Trotsky was murdered in Mexico
slide26
USSR
  • Stalin Economics
      • Stalin got rid of the NEP and created a command economy (where the government controls everything)
      • 5 Year Plan: Stalin’s plan to significantly increase the amount of things produced within the USSR.
      • Farmers did not want to give up land to collective farms..millions of people starved to death b/c of lack of food production.
      • Other parts of economy grew rapidly
stalin s dictatorship
Stalin’s Dictatorship
  • Communist Control
      • Used fear to control the lives of the people
      • People were killed if they complained
      • Religion and art were eliminated from Soviet society
  • Government
      • Politburo: Political Bureau of Communist Party. Small group that made decisions that was controlled by Stalin
      • Purge: Large scale eliminations of communist party members that he thought were disloyal to him.
      • 5 million Soviets either arrested, deported or killed by 1939.
slide29
WWII
  • WWII
      • Stalin negotiated with both GB and Germany. Wanted to keep the Soviet Union’s options open
      • Soviet-German Non Aggression Pact: USSR and Germany agreed to split up Poland.
      • USSR and Middle East had a ton of oil that Germany desperately needed. The USSR was getting mad at Germany attacking areas that they thought were under Soviet control.
      • In June of 1941, Hitler decided to invade the USSR
      • The Soviets were on their heels for awhile, rebounded and held off the German attacks on Moscow and Stalingrad
slide30
WWII
  • Results
      • Stalingrad was a huge Soviet victory and a turning point in WWII.
      • Soviets held the Germans off and eventually began to push their Army back into Germany.
      • Over 20 million Soviets died as a result of WWII
      • USSR became increasingly upset at the lack of urgency displayed by the USA and GB to open a 2nd front against Germany. Also mad about the creation and secrecy of USA with atomic bomb.
      • Soviets were allowed to capture the city of Berlin.
      • Yalta Conference: Leaders met to divide up Germany
      • Soviets killed and controlled the people of the land they advanced in during WWII.
cold war
Cold War
  • Cold War
      • War of ideas and different beliefs between the USA and USSR.
      • Truman Doctrine: US would support any country in fighting against the spread of communism. Contain communism from spreading!
      • Cominform: Soviet response to Truman Doctrine . Alliance between all communist countries…not as successful as they hoped.
      • Soviets were very concerned about Central and Eastern Europe. Germany was split in half
      • Berlin Blockade: Don’t let anything come into from the West. This led to the Berlin Airlift….the USSR eventually gave up the boycott.
cold war1
Cold War
  • Cold War
      • Warsaw Pact: Military alliance between countries under the Soviet Bloc…in response to NATO
      • Significantly more numbers with Warsaw Pact…that’s why USA was so reliant on nuclear threats.
      • Continued to compete with the United States in a variety of other ways (athletics, space, education, etc)
  • Nikita Khrushchev
      • Took over when Stalin died in 1953
      • Tried to eliminate a lot of the restrictions that Stalin had placed on all aspects of life.
      • Gave some control back to local farmers/workers to meet production quotas.
      • Major problem: Soviets were spending too much money on heavy industry and military.
      • Besides Sputnik (first satellite)…Soviet technology was behind USA
      • Berlin Wall (1961) and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)…weakened relationship between USA and USSR
cold war2
Cold War
  • Effects on Eastern Europe
      • Soviet Union controlled the governments of Eastern European countries in the Soviet Bloc (control)
      • Five-Year Plan to rebuild…some success
      • Just like in the USSR, farming struggled (collective farms) were no popular and consumer goods were rarely produced. Focused too much on military
      • Many revolts (Hungary, Poland)…violently put down
fall of communism
Fall of Communism
  • Leonid Brezhnev
      • Powerful leader, invaded Czech to put down protest
      • Brezhnev Doctrine: USSR would intervene with any satellite nation that appeared to be straying from communism
      • Restricted basic human rights
      • Strained relationship with the USA when the USSR invaded Afghanistan in 1979.
      • By Brezhnev’s death in 1982, USSR was struggling with agriculture, transportation and technology
fall of communism1
Fall of Communism
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
      • Became the new leader of USSR in 1985
      • Perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness)
      • He relaxed government control on a lot of things, reduced military spending, and got out of Afghanistan.
      • Much better relations with USA
      • Opposition to his plans from Communist Party…led to a failed military coup on Gorbachev in 1991. Gorbachev resigned at the end of 1991
  • Foreign Problems under Gorbachev
      • Freedom of Speech led to conflicts (Azerbaijan vs Armenia)
      • Baltic states began to demand independence (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia)
fall of communism2
Fall of Communism
  • Boris Yeltsin
      • Soviet Union fell apart by the start of 1992.
      • Became the new leader, began to slowly turn Russia into a democracy.
      • A LOT of problems getting along with different factions of new Russian government.
  • Problems
      • Organized crime rose dramatically!
      • People wanted independence from Russia (Chechnya)
      • Yeltsin was replaced by Vladimir Putin in 1999
post communist problems
Post Communist Problems
  • Problems Created
      • Czechoslovakia: Split into two countries, Czech Republic and Slovakia.
      • Yugoslavia: Serbs, Croats, Slovenians, Macedonians, and Albanians all lived there. All shared same language but different religions (Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Muslims). Croatia and Serbia broke apart in 1991.
      • Bosnia: Declared independence in 1992. Problem, 1/3 of population claimed they were Serbs who wanted to remain part of Serbian dominated Yugoslavia.
      • Ethnic Cleansing…attempt to get rid of Muslims in the area where the Bosnia Serbs wanted to control. US troops had to get involved.