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DNA PROFILING. At the end of this lesson you should be able to Outline the four stages involved in DNA profiling Define the process of DNA profiling Give two applications of DNA profiling Define genetic screening. Lesson Objectives. DNA PROFILING.

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Presentation Transcript
lesson objectives

At the end of this lesson you should be able to

  • Outline the four stages involved in DNA profiling
  • Define the process of DNA profiling
  • Give two applications of DNA profiling
  • Define genetic screening
Lesson Objectives
dna profiling
DNA PROFILING
  • 1980- American researchers discovered non-coding regions of DNA
  • 1984- Professor Alec Jeffries developed the process of DNA profiling
  • 1987 - First conviction based on DNA evidence
principle of dna profiling
Principle of DNA Profiling

All human chromosomes have sections of DNA with no known functions

These sections have short base sequences

These sequences repeat over and over

They are inherited from parents

Their length and position are unique to each person

dna profiling1
DNA PROFILING

A process or technique of analysis

revealing unique patterns of an individual’s DNA

involving non-coding regions

stages involved
STAGES INVOLVED
  • Cells broken down to release DNA
  • DNA strands cut into fragments
  • Fragments separated
  • Pattern of fragments analysed
slide9

2. DNA CUTTING

The DNA is cut up into fragments using restriction enzymes

This gives lots of fragments

The fragments are different sizes

slide10

3. FRAGMENT SEPARATION

Samples containing the fragments are placed into individual wells in a gel using a pipette

This is known as electrophoresis

electrophoresis
ELECTROPHORESIS
  • Fragments separated by length
  • DNA (negatively charged)
  • Moves towards +ve terminal
  • Shorter fragments move faster
4 dna transfer
4.DNA TRANSFER
  • DNA is split into single strands using an alkaline solution
  • DNA fragments transferred from gel to filter paper or nylon membrane
  • The Gel, with filter paper attached, is removed & separated
5 analysis
5. ANALYSIS

Radioactive probe in solution binds to DNA

Revealing a pattern of bands

X-ray film

applications of genetic screening

Paternity disputes

  • Forensic Science
  • Genetic Screening
  • Genetic Archaeology
Applications of Genetic Screening
common concerns

Quality of sample

  • Mistakes and inaccuracy
  • Interpretation
  • Privacy
  • Evidence from criminal investigations
  • Who should use DNA fingerprinting
  • Cost effective
  • Ethnic problems
COMMON CONCERNS
genetic screening

Genetic Screening is used to :

Test individuals who are at high risk of having or passing on a specific genetic disorder

Genetic Screening
screening tests

Antenatal serum screening for Down Syndrome

Antenatal carrier screening for Sickle Cell Anaemia

Predictive testing for hereditary cancers

Predictive testing for cystic fibrosis

Newborn screening for phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis and hypothyroidism.

Screening Tests
what have you learned

Can you ………………

  • Discuss the stages involved in DNA profiling
  • Define the process of DNA profiling
  • Give two applications of DNA profiling
  • Define genetic screening
What have you learned?