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Unit 255 Prepare & Cook Basic Hot & Cold Sauces. Basic Stocks Thickening Agents Basic Sauces. Definition of a Stock. A Stock is a liquid that has been formed by extracting flavours, nutrients and salts during the cooking process from Bones, Vegetables and aromatic Herbs.

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unit 255 prepare cook basic hot cold sauces
Unit 255 Prepare & Cook Basic Hot & Cold Sauces
  • Basic Stocks
  • Thickening Agents
  • Basic Sauces
definition of a stock
Definition of a Stock
  • A Stock is a liquid that has been formed by extracting flavours, nutrients and salts during the cooking process from Bones, Vegetables and aromatic Herbs.
  • Clear in appearance
  • Delicate flavour
  • Clear of grease
slide3
Storage of Stocks.

When cooked stocks must be strained and cooled within 90 minutes and stored in a fridge, stocks can be frozen.

All stocks must be re-boiled after storage prior to being used.

type of stocks
White Beef Stock

Brown Beef Stock

Vegetable Stock

Chicken Stock

Fish Stock

Type of Stocks
faults in stock production
Faults in Stock Production.
  • STOCK CLOUDY.
  • Incorrect ingredients, poorly prepared.
  • Incorrect cooking.
  • Stock not skimmed.
  • Old stock.
  • STOCK LACKS FLAVOUR.
  • Incorrect ratio of ingredients to liquid.
  • Cooking time too short.
glazes
Glazes
  • A Glaze is a reduction of stock, which is formed by Evaporation of the liquid.
  • It can be stored and used to enhance the flavour of other stocks and sauces.
  • It can be reconstituted by adding water to form a stock.
tips on stocks
Tips on Stocks
  • Never season a stock.
  • Never boil a stock.
  • Never add Potatoes, Swede, Turnip.
  • Always re-boil stocks.
  • Convenience Stock.
thickening agents
Thickening Agents.
  • There are 3 main types of thickening agent used in the production of a sauce.
  • ROUX
  • BEURRE MANIE
  • STARCHES
slide9
ROUX
  • A Roux is a mixture of FLOUR & FAT, gently cooked together over low heat.
  • White Roux:

Cooked for 2 -3 mins this allows the flour to COOK OUT, White in colour.

  • Blond Roux:

Cooked for 3 - 5 mins, until a Sandy colour.

  • Brown Roux:

Cooked for 10 - 15 mins, until Brown in colour

slide10
BEURRE MANIE.
  • This is an equal mixture of Flour & Butter.
  • Kneaded together and then whisked into the liquid in small quantities, thickening as it cooks out.
  • This is also known as a cold roux or pounded butter.
slide11
STARCHES.
  • Cornflour, Arrowroot, Potato Flour, Rice Flour & Barley Flour.
  • These are used as a thickening agent.
  • Arrowroot & cornflour are the most commonly used .
  • The starch must be mixed with cold water before adding to the hot liquid.
slide12
OTHER THICKENING AGENTS.
  • EGG YOLKS (PROTEIN BASED).
  • VEGETABLES & FRUITS.
  • BLOOD (JUGGED HARE).
  • GLAZES.
classification of sauces
CLASSIFICATION OF SAUCES.
  • BECHAMEL
  • VELOUTE
  • ESPAGNOLE (BROWN SAUCE)
  • TOMATO
  • JUS LIE
bechamel
TYPE OF ROUX

TYPE OF LIQUID

COOKING TIME

DERIVATIVES

WHITE ROUX

MILK

35 - 40 MINS

PARSLEY, ONION, CHEESE, MUSTARD, EGG ANCHOVY.

BECHAMEL
veloute
TYPE OF ROUX

TYPE OF LIQUID

COOKING TIME

DERIVATIVES

BLOND

STOCK

45 MINS

CHICKEN, MUSHROOM, FISH, CAPER

VELOUTE
espagnole
TYPE OF ROUX

TYPE OF LIQUID

COOKING TIME

DERIVATIVES

BROWN ROUX

STOCK

6 HOURS

MADEIRA, BROWN ONION, CHASSEUR, PIQUANT, DEMI GLACE.

ESPAGNOLE.
tomato
TYPE OF ROUX

TYPE OF LIQUID

COOKING TIME

DERIVATIES

BLOND ROUX

STOCK

35 - 45 MINS

CAN BE USED AS A BASE SAUCE FOR MANY OTHERS

TOMATO
jus lie
TYPE OF ROUX

TYPE OF LIQUID

COOKING TIME

DERIVATIVES

ARROWROOT

STOCK

2 HRS FOR STOCK & 10 MIN TO COOK OUT ARROWROOT.

CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF DEMI GLACE.

JUS LIE
cold sauces
COLD SAUCES

Vinaigrette

  • Basic recipe 3 parts Oil to 1 part Vinegar.
  • Various types of Oils and Vinegar’s can be used, with the addition of herbs and spices.
slide20
Mayonnaise
  • Can be used as a basic sauce as an accompaniment to a dish or can be extended to produce Maire Rose, Tartare.
  • This sauce must be stored below 5c.
  • If producing a fresh Mayonnaise pasteurised Egg Yolks must be used.
slide21
Horseradish.
  • Horseradish is a sauce traditionally served with Roast Beef, it can be served with Chicken Maryland or Smoked Trout.

Mint Sauce.

  • Mint Sauce is traditionally served with Cold or Hot Roast Lamb or Mutton.