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Lecture 28: Impacts on the World Order: Welcoming the Non-state Actors. 28 th April 2003 (Monday). Question of Week 4: Why was 911 so Special?. George W Bush: “ A Threat with No Precedent ”… Actor Event Venue Tool Timing The Actor – Non-state Actors!!. Structure of Lecture 28: .

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Lecture 28 impacts on the world order welcoming the non state actors

Lecture 28: Impacts on the World Order:Welcoming the Non-state Actors

28th April 2003 (Monday)

Question of week 4 why was 911 so special
Question of Week 4:Why was 911 so Special?

  • George W Bush: “A Threat with No Precedent”…

  • Actor

  • Event

  • Venue

  • Tool

  • Timing

  • The Actor –Non-state Actors!!

Structure of lecture 28
Structure of Lecture 28:

  • Definition of Non-state Actors

  • Organizational Structure of Al-Qaeda

  • Concept of the 2-dimensional (2D) World

  • Concept of the 3-dimensional (3D) World

  • Conclusion –

    • Post-911 as a Systematic Fight Back from the State Actors?

Part i definition of non state actors

PART IDefinition of Non-state Actors


Trans nationalism

  • State Actors and Nationalism

    Vs Non-state Actors and Trans-nationalism

  • Goals of Trans-nationalist Organizations:

    • Beyond the Sole Interests of ONE State

    • Common Interests of Many States (e.g. Pan-Slavism)

    • Common Interests of Many People, but against the Sole Interests of States (e.g. Environmentalism)

  • Membership: Trans-nationalistic

  • Quasi-state Structural Organization (refer to Part II)

Legitimate non state actors
Legitimate” Non-state Actors

  • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

  • Established 1991

  • 50 “Non-state” Members, Representing 100million People

  • http://www.unpo.org/

  • Aboriginals in Australia

  • East Turkestan

  • Tibet

  • Taiwan

  • Kurdistan

Nsas vs ngos

  • Non-state Actors

    • “Legitimate” NSA: Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

    • “Illegitimate” NSA: Al-Qaeda

  • Non-governmental Organizations

    • NGO Research Center at Tsinghua University

    • Green Peace, Oxfam, Friends of the Earth…

Illegitimate nsa transfiguration
Illegitimate NSA: Transfiguration

  • NSA: the Ability of “Transfiguration” into States

    • Part of Al-Qaeda  Afghanistan (as a “cell”)

    • Part of Al-Qaeda Remains a “Terrorist” Umbrella Organization

    • Taliban “Transformed” Back into Al-Qaeda

  • Green Peace can’t Replace the US Government!

Part ii organizational structure of al qaeda

PART IIOrganizational Structure of Al-Qaeda

Nature of al qaeda
Nature of Al-Qaeda

  • Al-Qaeda = the “Base”…of what?

  • Decentralized, Loose Connection of “Cells”

  • Founding Members:

    • Former Mujahedeen Fighters in Afghanistan +

    • “Arab Afghans” (Middle Eastern Supporters of Mujahedeens)

  • New Members:

    • Anti-state Advocators Around the World (for various reasons)

Leadership structure of al qaeda
Leadership Structure of Al-Qaeda

  • Supreme Leader:

    • Osama Bin Laden

  • Vice-Leader:

    • Ayman al-Zawahiri

    • Former Leader of Muslim Brotherhoods of Egypt

  • Military Commander:

    • Mohammed Atef

    • Police Leader in Egypt

Diplomatic capabilities
Diplomatic Capabilities

  • “Untraditional” Alliance with NSAs/ NGOs

    • Abu Sayyaf (Moro Islamic Liberation Front) of the Philippines

    • Jemaah Islamiah (JI) of Indonesia

  • “Traditional” Alliance with States

    • Cooperation with Afghanistan and Sudan

    • “Understanding” with KSA, UAE and Pakistan

  • Practice of the Financial World:

    • “Merge” with Muslim Brotherhoods of Egypt

    • “Split” into Regional Groups in Kenya and Tanzania

Financial capabilities i
Financial Capabilities (I)

  • William Wechsler: “Strangling the Hydra – Targeting Al Qaeda’s Finances”

  • The Ways to Make Money:

    • Legal Business and Investment (~ National Financial Investment Scheme)

    • Criminal Schemes (e.g. Opium)

    • Direct Donations (~ “Direct Tax”)

    • Indirect Donations (~ “Indirect Tax”)

Financial capabilities ii
Financial Capabilities (II)

  • How to Generate Cash Flow?

    • Cash Smuggling

    • Formal Banking System (Bank Havens)

    • Underground Banking System (hawala)

  • Concept of “National Reserve”?

    • Balance Budget!

Propaganda capability
Propaganda Capability

  • “Partnership” with Qatar Gulf TV (Al-Jazeera)

    • 35 million Viewers in the Middle East

    • Osama Bin Laden’s Friendship with TV Producers?

  • Two-front Propaganda War:

    • Historicism of its Image

    • Modernism of its Applicability and Technique

  • Iraqi Partnership with CNN in Gulf War (1990)

    • CNN Accused of “Being Used” by Saddam Hussein for First-handed News Reports?!

Assigned readings
Assigned Readings

  • Main Text:

    • William Wechsler: “Strangling the Hydra – Targeting Al Qaeda’s Finances” (H&R P.129-143)

  • Supplementary Text:

    • Louise Richardson: “Terrorists as Transnational Actors.” Taylor, Max and Horgan, John. Ed. The Future of Terrorism. London: Frank Cass, 2000. P.200-219.

Part iii concept of the 2 dimensional 2d world

PART III Concept of the 2-dimensional (2D) World

What is 2d
What is 2D??

  • 2-Dimensional World System:

    • Horizontal Relationship

    • “The States said it all”

    • No Upper Authority Higher than the States

    • No Lower Voluntary Movements across the States

  • e.g. RISK

The westphalian world system
The Westphalian World System

  • Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

    • The First European “World War”

    • Holy Roman Empire, France, Sweden, Denmark, Spain

    • Battleground: Modern Germany

  • Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

    • Signed by All Major States at the time

    • Settled State Borders

    •  Decline of Feudalism and the Influence of Church over Internal Affairs of States

    •  Rise of Absolutism & Nationalism within the States

State non state actors why round i fight
State > Non-state Actors, why??ROUND I – Fight!

  • Better Protection over Citizens

  • Better Esprit de corps during the Time of Great Discovery, Revolution and Scientific Evolution

  • Increased National Uniqueness:

    • Language, Culture, Religions…

  • The Rule of Reasons:

    • Nationalism/ Machiavellianism

    • > Philosophy/ Theology …

Horizontal relationship the rule of realism
Horizontal Relationship: The Rule of Realism

  • International Relations Theories:

    • Realism (Hans Morgenthau)

    • Neo-Realism (Kenneth Waltz)

    • Classicism/ Marxism/ Statism/ Gender Studies/ Bureaucratism…

  • Realism: State Actions Governed by Interest Maximization

  • Neo-Realism: State Actions Governed by Security Maximization

  • Focus: Geo-politics/ Oceanic-politics

Part iv concept of the 3 dimensional 3d world

PART IV Concept of the 3-dimensional (3D) World

What is 3d
What is 3D??

  • 3-Dimensional World System:

    • Vertical Relationship

    • The States can’t say it all

    • Upper Authority Higher than the States

    • Lower Voluntary Movements Across the States

  • e.g. Romance of the Three Kingdoms VIII –

    • The Concept of Exiled Army

    • NOT Roman of the Three Kingdoms IX –why?

Pre modern 3d world system
Pre-Modern 3D World System

  • Barbarians

    • Overthrew the Roman Empire with Limited State Efforts

  • Medieval Church

    • The Order of Crusades by Pope Urban II (1095)

  • Feudalism

    • Holy Roman Empire as a Loose Confederation of Feudal States

  • Mercantile Armies

    • Army Paid in Money to Fight for Sparsely-populated States

The post westphalian world system after 911
The “Post-Westphalian” World System after 911……

  • 911: Interaction of State Actors + Non-state Actors

  • Horizontal Relations + Vertical Relations  Three-dimensional (3D) World

  • Decline of National Authority over its own Land (“Homeland”) and People

  • Rise of Voluntarism of People over their Countries

  • Fundamental Conflicts between State and Non-state Actors

Non state actors state actors why round ii fight
Non-state Actors > State Actors, Why??ROUND II, FIGHT!

  • Era of Globalization

    • Technological Proliferation (e.g. Easy Access to “Mass Destruction Weapons”)

  • Increased Horizontal Mobility of People Around the World

    •  Decreased Conscious of Nationalism

    •  Increased Concern over the Future of Human Beings on a Whole

Saturation of state development
Saturation” of State Development

  • Impossibility of Any Sort of State to Take Care of People with Trans-national Interests

  • Increased Burden of States

    • Hinder their Ability to Carry out Alternative Political Goals

    • e.g. Welfare States Vs Cultural Development

    • e.g. Industrial Development Vs Environmentalism

Vertical horizontal relationship the new rule of the world
Vertical + Horizontal Relationship: The New Rule of the World?

  • Horizontal Rule of Neo-Realism still Dominates the States

  • Vertical Rules of Non-state Actors:

    • To Advance its Ideological Goals (e.g. Anti-capitalism/ Environmentalism)

    • By Whatever Means (from Peace to Terror)

    •  No Realism at all

    •  Unpredictable by the States

New rule of the states in the 3d world
New Rule of the States in the 3D World

  • “Pre-emptive Realism”

    • Bush Doctrine II (Turbo)

    • State Actions Governed by Maximization of Security through Overtaking the Non-state Actors Pre-emptively

  • Focus: Virtual-politics + Sub-conscious-politics

    • National Boundary No Longer Important

    • Enemies are Perceived in the Virtual Community + Sub-consciousness

A wiser doctrine of bush
A Wiser Doctrine of Bush

“Al-Qaeda is to terror what the Mafia is to crime.

But its goal is not making money;

its goal is remaking the world.”

–George W Bush

Conclusion post 911 as a systematic fight back from the state actors

Conclusion –Post-911 as a Systematic Fight Back from the State Actors?

Reassessing the anti terror coalition
Reassessing the Anti-Terror Coalition

  • Why did Virtually Almost All States Join the Anti-Terror Coalition?

    • Why did Libya Support USA?

    • In Support of USA Vs Afghanistan?

    • A Concerted Effort of the States Vs Non-state Actors?

  • Reassessing the List of “Foreign Terrorist Organizations”

    • By US Office of Counterterrorism (Aug 2002)

    • “Terrorism”: against the people, or against the very identity of the states?

    • The Black-list of the World of States?

Current condition of non state actors
Current Condition of Non-state Actors

  • With the Existing Advantages of NSAs

    • Over its Sluggish Advancement in the Past Centuries

  • With the Mutual-understanding of States of the World

    • To Suppress the Over-development of NSAs

Future of non state actors i
Future of Non-state Actors (I)

  • Possibility #1: Rule of NSAs

    • No States are Able to Counter-balance the US Hegemony

    •  But the people Within the States are Discontent towards the Hegemony

    •  State-actors are Hopeless to Help them  Rise of NSAs

  • Possibility #2: Deaths of NSAs

    • All States and People are Happy to be Ruled by a Single Hegemon, with the Same Set of Identity, Culture and Economy

    •  People are Subordinate to their States

    •  States are Subordinate to the Hegemony

    •  NSAs = Irrelevant, with Few Support from People

Future of non state actors ii
Future of Non-state Actors (II)

  • Possibility #3: “Balance of Power”

    • States are Inter-balancing Against One Another

    •  Different States Need Assistance from Different NSAs

    •  States (as a group) also Balance Against the NSAs (as another group)

    •  The World System is Inter-balancing Between Different States, as well as Between State-actors and Non-state Actors

The end

~~The End~~

Thank you for attending