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Non-State Actors and Governance. Transnational Non-State Actors. Transnational actors actors acting ACROSS state borders Transnational politics “…interaction across state borders outside the central control of foreign policy organs” (Nye, 224) Examples?. The Power of Numbers.

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transnational non state actors
Transnational Non-State Actors
  • Transnational actors
    • actors acting ACROSS state borders
  • Transnational politics

“…interaction across state borders outside the central control of foreign policy organs” (Nye, 224)

  • Examples?
the power of numbers
The Power of Numbers

International NGOs

  • 1964: 1,470
  • 1972: 2173
  • 1985: 14,000
  • 2003: 24,000

Source: Yearbook of International Organizations

  • Example: Green Peace; offices in 37 countries
the power of information and technology
The Power of Information and Technology
  • The Multilateral Agreement on Investments (MAI)
    • Rules to facilitate international investments
    • Negotiated under the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
  • Public Citizen
    • Campaign against MAI
  • Treaty abandoned
the power of the media

Save the Whales campaign

Most whaling states stopped whaling

Ban on commercial whaling

The Power of the Media
the power of resources
Sales of select MNCs ($)

Wall-Mart 219.8bn

GM 177.2bn

RD Shell 135.2bn

Toyota MC 120.8bn

IBM 85.7bn

PepsiCo 26.9bn

Greenpeace 0.157bn

Source: Nye 2004, 10 on business, GGYB on Greenpeace

GDP of select countries ($)

Saudi Arabia 242bn

Ukraine 218 bn

Denmark 155.5 bn

Chile 151 bn

Norway 143 bn

Iraq 58 bn

Dominican R 53 bn

Bulgaria 50.6 bn

Gambia 2.6 bn

Congo 2.5 bn

Suriname 1.5 bn

Belize 1.28 bn

Source: 2003 CIA fact book,

The Power of Resources
the backlash
The Backlash

-Disproportionate power of transnational actors

-support corrupt governments

-disproportionate share of benefits

-no accountability

-International institutions favor markets at expense of other values

-Race to the bottom

-Poverty and inequality staggering:

1.3bn live on $1/day

half of global population on $2/day

multi level governance
Multi-Level Governance

International Institutions


Transnational Network Governance




National and Local Institutions

private governance corporate social responsibility
Private Governance: Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Codes of conduct
    • Sullivan Principles
  • Triple Bottom Line reporting:
    • Financial
    • Social
    • Environmental
  • Example: Shell
private governance certification
Private Governance: Certification
  • Code of rules, principles, guidelines, reporting, monitoring mechanism against which processes are products are compared and certified
  • Labeling to make consumer aware
    • Fair Trade
certification fair trade
Certification: Fair Trade
  • Equal Exchange Organization: provides fair trade certification
  • Organic certification
  • Shade grown coffee
  • “Good Coffee, Good Business”
trans governmental networks the new world order
Trans-Governmental Networks:The New World Order?
  • Bureaucratic cooperation among specialized government agencies and institutions
  • Not necessarily guided by the foreign policy establishment
trans governmental networks
Trans-Governmental Networks
  • Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission (1995-98)
    • U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technical Assistance
    • Managing and securing nuclear material
    • Transfer of know how and assistance
trans governmental networks1
Trans-Governmental Networks
  • Cities for Climate Change
  • 579 cities participate, 8% of global CO2 emission
  • Adopt GHG reduction policies
    • Baseline emissions inventory
    • Adopt emissions reduction target
    • Develop local action plan
    • Implement action plan
    • Monitor progress and report it
  • Win-win: energy savings + CO2 emission reductions
  • US cities savings for 1999: $70mn.
public private partnerships
Public-Private Partnerships
  • "The United Nations once dealt only with governments. By now we know that peace and prosperity cannot be achieved without partnerships involving governments, international organizations, the business community and civil society. In today's world, we depend on each other."

–Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General

the global alliance for vaccines and immunization gavi
The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI)

GAVI Partners:

  • The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • WHO
  • The World Bank Group
  • Developing Country Governments
  • Nongovernmental Organization
  • Industrialized Country Governments
  • Research Institutes
  • Vaccine Industry-Industrialized Country
  • Technical Health Institutes
  • Vaccine Industry-Developing Country
gavi results 2000 2005
GAVI Results 2000-2005
  • 13 million children reached with basic vaccines 
  • 135 million children reached with new vaccines
  • Coverage of hepatitis B vaccine in GAVI-eligible countries: 66% (was 20% in 2000)
the demand and supply of public private partnerships
The Demand and Supply of Public-Private Partnerships

Transnational Interests

Governance Gaps

Agency & State Interests

concluding questions
Concluding Questions
  • Why get involved in transnational governance?
  • Is transnational governance effective?
  • Is transnational governance legitimate?
  • Does transnational governance strengthen or undermine the state?
  • What is the future of international organizations?