APUSH Study Guide:Chapters 1-26 Angelica Ramos, Cesar Badillo, Liezel Manalo, Michelle Nguyen, and Victoria Reyes
Chapter 1 • North America forms and Land Bridge theory • Pangaea: theory that continents were once one mega-continent • History was first recorded 6,000 years ago; Europeans first set foot in North America 600 years ago. • A land bridge emerged from Great Ice Age connecting Asia & North America across Bering Sea; possibly occurred 35,000 years ago • Countless tribes emerged, spreading across North, Central, and South America. Including Incas, Mayas, and Aztecs. • First Americans • Pueblo Indians were first American corn growers that lived in adobe houses and had intricate irrigation systems to water/grow corn • Corn/maize around 5,000BC in Mexico = revolutionary because people need only be farmers (arrived in U.S. around 1,200BC) • Easter Indians grew corn, beans, and squash with three sister farming (corn grew in stalk providing trellis for beans, squash leaves shade ground and kept moisture in soil) • Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South), and Iroquoi (North) • Iroquois Confederation: group of 5 tribes in New York state led by Hiawatha. Independent but met in common interest i.e. war. • Native Americans (compared to Europeans) felt no man owned the land, nature was mixed with many spirits and sacred • Norse (vikings from Norway), first Europeans to come to America, led by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson landed in “Newfoundland” • Africa & beginning of Slave Trade • Marco Polo traveling to China sparked European desire for spices which sparked up search for water route down along Africa • Caravel: ship w/ triangular sail, Compass: determines direction, Astrolabe: sextant gizmo identifying ship’s latitude • Slaves initially race-indendent; later slave traders wrecked tribes and families to prevent uprisings and they ended up on sugar plantations Portuguese set up along Africa coast. Spain watched their success enviously. • Columbus convinces Isabella and Ferdinand to fund expedition to East Indies and after 30 days at sea struck land • Europe can provide market, capital, and technology, Africa the labor, and New World the raw materials • New World introduced corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin squash; and syphilis; Old World introduced cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, and smallpox, yellow fever, malaria (90% of Columbus Indians died) • Spanish Conquistadores include Vasco Balboa (“discoverer” of Pacific Ocean across isthmus of Panama), Ferinand Magellan (first to circumnavigate globe), Ponce de Leon (names Florida and searches for “fountain of youth”, Hernando Cortes, Francisco Pizarro (conquers Incan Empire of Peru), and Francisco Coronado (searched for legendary Cibola and found Pueblo Indians) • Encomienda: system when Indians given to Spanish landlords and be converted to Christianity (slavery guised as missionary work) • Mestizos: new race of people, mix of Spanish and Indian blood
Chapter 2 • Early American colonization • Spain est. Santa Fe, France est. Quebec, Britain est. Jamestown (struggling); North America largely unclaimed • European efforts in 1500s to colonize failed because….King Henry VIII broke away from Roman Catholic Church, Elizabeth I directed England in Protestant direction, problems with Catholic Ireland • Sir Humhrey Gilbert died at sea, Sir Walter Raleigh est Roanoke Island Colony /Lost Colony (mysteriously disappeared) • England under fiery and ambitious Elizabeth I • Knighted Francis Drake, a “sea dog” who pirated gold from Spanish ships and circumnavigated Earth, infuriating Spanish • Defeated Spanish Armada in 1588, opening Atlantic; British navy dominates seas for next 300 years, peace treaty in 1604 • Golden age of literature introduced by William Shakespeare • Less/no land for poor (enclosure) + bad economy in southern England + firstborn inheritances (primogeniture) = go to America • 1606, VA Company receives charter to est colony in America. May 1607, 100 English men est in Jamestown, VA. • Forty died on boat ride over, poor drinking water, plenty disease, prioritizing gold, zero women, wrecked supply ship • Captain John Smith took control in 1608 and instituted strong discipline and according to legend saved by Pocahontas • Lord De La Warr intercepted ship of settlers abandoning colony, forced them to return, instituted more discipline, and supplies • First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe, later developed sweet tobacco saving Jamestown (economically) but Rolfe was killed when Indians struck again in 1622 • Tobacco led to “land butchery”, demanded cheap labor (white indentured servants), “all their eggs in one basket.” • Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646): Indians banished from Chesapeake, notion that Indians & whites cannot live together • Indians fell due to disease, disorganization, and disposability and eventually go fire arm • 1619, Virginians create House of Burgess (representative self-gov’t), first blacks brought to America, shipload of women came • Maryland: founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634, motivated with religious freedom. • Indentured servants began to be replaced by black slaves commonly in South and Chesapeake • Desire for stable work force, white indentures wanted and got land, black slaves permanent workers, Act of Toleration • Sugar plantations (labor-intensive) sprung up in West Indies (Caribbean Islands) • Barbados slave code of 1661: rules designed to keep slaves in control • Helped Carolina (formally begun in 1670) prosper due to natural harbor at Charleston; slave trade prospered as well • Georgia founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe, acting as a buffer zone and dumping ground for English criminals
Chapter 3 • Protestant Reformation produces Puritanism • Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation when he nailed “95 Theses” on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral in 1517. • Bible or scripture alone was God’s word + grace from God alone will provide salvation + faith in Christ alone will save someone • John Calvin preached about Calvinism which stressed predestination (the idea that God has already determined who will go Heaven or Hell) • “Protestant Work Ethic”: the impact of Calvinism • Pilgrims inhabit Plymouth at end of Pilgrimage • Pilgrims were Separatists (breakaways from the Church of England that struck a deal with Virginia Company to sail on Mayflower from Holland to Virginia but instead arrived off coast of New England in 1620 • Captain Myles Standish, aka “Captain Shrimp”, provided leadership and security against Indians • Pilgrims agreed to make and live by new rules by signing the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship (first form of self-gov’t in New England and laid foundation that America would be run by Americans • Governor of the Plymouth colony, elected 30 times in annual elections, was William Bradford • Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth (democracy run on Biblical principles) • Unlike pilgrims, Puritans (given a royal charter in 1629 to start Massachusetts Bay Colony) came in about 11,000 • John Winthrop was elected governor for 19 years and economy based on fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding thrived • Building the Bay Colony • Franchise (right to vote) quickly given to all “freemen” (adult men members of the Congregational Church) • Most noteworthy Puritan preacher was John Cotton, who criticized Church of England and emigrated to Massachusetts • Micahel Wigglesworth wrote “Day of Doom” and sold one copy every 20 people • Trouble in Bible Commonwealth • Anne Hutchinson: outspoken woman who challenged predestination with theory called antinomianism (with predestination, a person’s actions were immaterial) = heresy. • New England spreads out: New Haven colony established in 1638, joining Connecticut later. • King Philip’s War (between Metacom and English villages) lasted two years and was very violent. • New England Confederation set up, consisting of 4 colonies and held the main goal of defense. • Goals of Dominion of New England (1686) were to strengthen colonial defense against Indians and regain control by England over America
Chapter 4 • Chesapeake life spans were only up to 40 or 50. • Men outnumbered women and therefore had to compete to win a woman’s heart (ratio 6:1 in 1650) • Headright System: if an aristocrat sponsored an indentured servant’s passage to America, the aristocrat earned the right to purchase 50 acres of land at a likely cheap price • Encourages growth of Chesapeake • As indentured servants decreased, slavery rose • Bacon’s Rebellion • Nathaniel Bacon led about 1,000 men in 1676 in a revolt to get Gov. William Berkeley to crack down on Indians and get their land. He suddenly died of disease but his legacy lives on • Colonial slavery • Most slaves usually captured by African tribes, crammed in boats on grisly “Middle Passage” (from Africa to West Indies). • Slaves and children slaves would be property (chattels) to owners for life; some made it a crime to teach them ho w to read • Africans in America • A unique African American culture emerged as a mix of African-and-white cultures • Gullah (language variation of Angola), goober (peanut), gumbo (okra), and voodoo (witchcraft.). • The Stono River in South Carolina, 50 rising up to attempt an escape by walking to Spanish Florida but where militia intercepted • Southern Society • “planter aristocracy”: families of the privileged (i.e. Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons ran Virginia • Beneath FFVs (first families of VA were small farmers (aka yeomen farmers) • Next were the landless whites and slaves of course were at the bottom • New England Family • Climate and condition in New England were much healthier than in South • Top priority of New England’s Bible Commonwealth is to protect the marriage and the family (illustrated in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. • Half-Way Covenant, people could receive a sort of half-status in the church • The Salem Witch Trials: names were named, rumors spread, and innocent people were accused
Chapter 5 • Races of Colonial America • Germans made up 6% of the population; they were called “Pennsylvania Dutch” • Scots-Irish made up 7% of population; The Paxton Boys, 1764 led a revolt about not being able to get land • Social pyramid of the South: Rich plantation owners (“planters”) owning slaves, “Yeoman” farmers/small farmers who owned land and maybe few slaves, landless whites, indentured slaves, black slaves • Agriculture = dominant industry • Chesapeake of Maryland & Virginia = tobacco, Middle Colonies (“bread colonies”) = wheat, New England = fishing and whaling • Triangular Trade: 1. New England with rum 2. West Coast of Africa trade rum for African slaves 3. West Indies and exchange slaves for molasses and return to New England to sell • Naval stores (turpentine, pine tar, and pitch) used to build and repair British navy • Molasses Act, 1733, taxed West Indies molasses shocking Americans. They then turned to smuggling. • 1775, 2 “established churches” received tax money • Anglican Church (Church of England) became official faith in Georgia, Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and part of NY • More worldly than Puritanism, hellfire was less hot • Congregational Church grew out of Puritan church and est. in New England (excluding Rhode Island) • Presbyterianism, kin of Congregationalism, common but unofficial • Great Awakening—a revival. America’s first big religious movement • Lead preachers: Jonathan Edwards (said salvation comes through God’s grace), and George Whitefield (who struck with emotions) • These preachers called “New Lights”; “Old Lights” = Anglicans, traditional Congregationalists, and Presbyterians • Baptist faith grew in numbers embracing New Light preaching (universities sprung up and encouraged missionary work) • Painters—John Trumbull (discouraged by father), Charles Willson Peale (portraits of GW), Benjamin West & John Singleton Copley (traveled to Europe where artists were more respected)—were looked down upon as a wasting time • Literature—Phillis Wheatley (slave girl w/ no formal education poet), Ben Franklin (Poor Richard’s Almanack)—was sparse. • John Peter Zenger was a printer in NY printing unflattering things about governor of NY and was arrested; his lawyer Alexander Hamilton argued prints were true and won but it was a landmark case for freedom of press
Chapter 6 • Edict of Nantes (1598) issued granting religious toleration of Huguenots (French Protestants) to help ease Catholic-Protestant feuding • Young beaver trappers, aka voyageurs, worked with Indians and sold beaver skins • New France grew; Detroit (“City of Straits”) founded in 1701 by Antoine Cadillac to help fend off English from moving Ohio Valley, Louisiana founded by Robert de La Salle in 1682 ; breadbasket of New France: Illinois • England in mini-wars in 1700s with France/Spain; England won • King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War: both sides recruited Indians and agreed Americans weren’t worth risking • English won and peace treaty giving British Arcadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay, pinned French along St. Lawrence River, and British trading rights with Spanish Florida, signed at Utrecht (1713). • War of Jenkin’s Ear: Spanish commander cut off English Captain Jenkin’s ear, merged with larger War of Austrian Succession later known as King George’s War. Peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to French outraging English • GW inaugurates war with France and Ohio Valley was battleground and prize for French and Indian War • French built Ft. Duqeusne (today Pittsburgh) to claim Ohio Valley and Major GW + British troops sent in response • Different because it’d begun in America, in Europe aka as Seven Years’ War • 7 of 13 colonies met in 1754 at Albany Congress (NY) where Ben Franklin led delegates toward unity (“Join or Die”) • General Edward Braddock sent by British after Washington’s failure to roust out French at Ft. Duquesne but were ambushed en route • William Pitt, strong leader and “Great Commoner” who became “Organizer of Victory”, stepped in for British and Ft. Louisbourg fell in 1758 • James Wolfe, 32, scored victory at Battle of Quebec when sneaking up and surprising French on Plains of Abraam. Wolfe and French counterpart Marquis de Montcalm killed in battle. • Treaty of Paris, 1763: France kicked out of North America, Britain got Canada and land all the way to Mississippi River • Indians weakened in aftermath • Pontiac, Ottawa chief led violent uprising in Ohio valley but British destroyed his people, opening trans-Appalachians to English • Daniel Boone trekked across mountains and led settlers into Tennessee and Kentucky • Proclamation Line of 1763: line=Appalachian Mountains, whites prohibited from crossing and settling west, that was Indian land • First French to be rooted out of their homes: Arcadians, developed culture called “Cajuns”
Chapter 7 Political • Victory in 7 years war made Britain the master of a vastly enlarged imperial domain. • Republicanism • Navigation Law of 1650/ all commerce flowing to and fro could only be on British vessels • Boston Massacre December 16 1773 Boston Tea Party • 1776 Townshend Acts • Taxed paper, lead, paint, and tea • indirect taxes • Salutary neglect – let Americans do their own thing for a century • Result of wide geography, British apathy, and American smuggling. • Quartering Act (1765) required colonists to provide food and quarter for British troops. Detested. • Sugar Act (1764) – tax on sugar. First tax on Americans for raising revenue. Protests lowered tax. Intellectual • Americans are reluctant revolutionaries • Adam Smith – preventing great people from their future is a human rights violation • America – rebellious against “Mother” Britain/England • Could be said that American Revolution started long before 1775, back to when colonists first arrived to America. • To a large degree, it was the principles of these acts that irked Americans Arts/Culture • Britain is portrayed as a lady of fashion while Natives are the wild, savage, rebellious daughters • Galate of George 3 was made Technology • Mercantilism – a nation’s wealth and power is measured by its treasury of gold or silver • Thus, gold is either sought by finding, stealing, winning, or earning. • Placed restrictions on economic activity Economy • Stamp Act of 1765 – stamps+taxes on everything • Stamp showed payment of tax • Woolen garments of homespun become valuable • Enumerated goods could only be shipped to England (whereas Americans wanted to ship to the highest bidder) Social • Radical Whigs (England) – influenced American thinking • Republicanism – society where citizens elect representatives to govern for them
Chapter 8 Political • Battles of Lexington and Concord – 1775 • 2nd Continental congress meets May 1775 in Philadelphia to address the worsening situation • George Washington appointed as general of continental army • Instilled confidence and boosted morale • Accepted no pay, but kept an expence account instead of over 100k • Patient, courageous, self-disciplined, fair, and religious • Too measures to raise money for an army and navy • Battle of Bunker Hill • Congress drafts George Washington • Battle of Trenton • George 3 proclaims colonies in rebellion • Declaration of Independence • In grand style • Broken into 4 parts • State of rights based on John Locke’s natural rights might be the most important • Battle of Saratoga was perhaps the most critical battle of the war Intellectual • By 173, (Treaty of Paris) British formally recognizes the US’ independence • Americans try to deny any intentions of independence • America is savage • Thomas Paine preaches common sense • In physical world, smaller body never ruled the larger one • No respect for the king, calling him “Royal Brute of Great Britain” • Time had come to break away from England • Book is considered radical Religious • Quebec Act of 1774 shows no welcome to anti-Catholics Social • Colonials loyal to king • British burn Falmouth (Portland) Maine • 1776 – Paine’s Common Sense • Loyalists – New York, Charleston, Quaker Penn and New Jersey. Least around in New England. • Tories. 16% of Americans • Patriots – New England Presbyterianism and congregationalism • Supported war for independence • Moderates in the middle • Largest, though dwindled after Common Sense published
Chapter 9 Political • 2nd continental congress calls on colonies in 1776 to draft a new constitution • Federalists led by George W. and Ben Franklin • Creating a confederation as their first government • Loose union of states where a federal and state level exist, yet the state level retains most sovereignty • Articles of confederation 1777 became the United States’ first government • Virginia Plan (aka Large States Plan) proposed that representation would be based on a state’s population. • New Jersey Plan (aka Small States Plan) objected to Virginia saying that if congress went solely by population, then the small states’ votes wouldn’t matter. Intellectual • Landmarks in land laws • Delegates hoped to save revolutionary idealism and make it into a strong political structure • Alex Hamilton - strong advocate of a super-powerful central government • Equality was buzzword of the day Religious • Separation of church and state • Episcopal Church – the Anglican Church, to distance itself from its English roots Arts/Culture Technology Economic • Economic democracy preceded political democracy • Economy is bad, Americans grow poor • No more imports from Britain • Federalists overall wealthier than anti-federalists Social • Britain remained in Americas • Large chunk of conservative whig was absent • No trade with England • Shay’s rebellion • Daniel Shays’ was disgruntled over difficulties involving farmland mortgages. • With friends, staged a take-over in parts of Massachusetts. He was stopped, arrested, convicted, sentenced to death, but pardoned.
Chapter 10 Political • George Washington unanimously elected in 1789 • (@first) Secretary of state – Thomas Jefferson, Treasury – Alexander Hamilton, of War – Henry Knox • 1791 James Madison writes Bill of Rights • Judiciary Act of 1789 create Supreme Court • 1790 – deal to put District of Columbia on Pontomac River • 1794 Whiskey Rebellion (miniscule) (mighty consequence) • Bill of Rights *9 and 10 are most important • freedom of religion, speech, press, peaceful assemble and petition • right to bear arms • protection from quartering soldiers in homes • protection from searches or seizures without a warrant • right to not testify against one’s self and protection from double jeopardy • guarantee of a proper trial • guarantee of a jury trial • protection from excessive bail or fines • statement that people have rights that are not even listed here (People’s Rights Amendment) • Statement that any power not granted in the Constitution is left to the states (State’s Rights Amendment) Intellectual • Alexander Hamilton believed wealth from government would trickle down • Hamiltonians and Jeffersonians Religious Arts/Culture Technology Economic • Hamilton battled Jefferson for a band; prevails and first bank of America (1791) in Philadelphia • Strongest opposition came from agricultural south • Passes additional revenue in 1791, excise taxes on a few domestic items (like Whiskey) • One of his objectives was to keep a national debt, expecting tariff revenues to pay interest on the huge debt and run the government • 1st tariff law – imposed 8% tax on imports, passed in 1789. Supposed to make small protective wall around small industries. Social • Couple of issues with England were growing
Chapter 11 Political • Thomas Jefferson beats Jon Adams in 1800 election, 73-63 • Quickly pardoned prisoners of sedation acts, Naturalization Law of 1802 reduced the requirement of 14 years of residency to previous 5 • Did away w/ the excise tax • revolution • Judiciary Act of 1801, John Marshall shaped American legal tradition more than any other person • James Madison elected president in 1809 • In 1806, London issued what was called Orders in Council. These rules stated that any foreign (U.S.) ship headed to France must first check-in at a British port for inspection. • 1807 Embargo Act passed • Forbade all exports to any nation • New England was hit hardest by this act • South and West were also hurt. Crops began to pile up • Non-intercourse act – outlawed shipping to England and France only • 1811 – congress changed. Younger ment ousted older submission men. • Young men were fiery-tempered, called “War Hawks” as they pushed for war Intellectual • Thomas Jefferson preferred a smaller military • 2 kinds of Jeffersonians • Scholarly philosopher • Politician who learned that theories don’t always work out cleanly in real life Religious Arts/Cultural Economical • (Albert Gallatin) – reduces national debt w/ a strict economy • US paid Tripoli $60,000 for releases of captured Americans • Louisiana Purchase $15 million for 820,000 sq. miles, 3 cents per acre Social • Jefferson accused of having an affair w/ one of his slaves • 1800 Federalists had earned themselves many enemies
CHAPTER 12 POLITICAL • Federalists doctrines of disunity, which survived the party blazed a portentous trail. Until 1815 there was far more talk of nullification and secession in New England than in any other section, including the South. The outright flouting of the Jeffersonian embargo and later crippling of the war effort were the two most damaging acts of nullification in America prior to the events leading to the Civil War. Canadians felt betrayed by the treaty of Ghent. They were especially aggrieved by the failure to secure an Indian buffer state or even mastery of the Great Lakes. INTELLECTUAL • Canada became an important battleground War of 1812 because British forces were the weakest there. A successful American can offense might have quashed British influence among the Indians and garnered new land for settlers. Control of the great Lakes was vital and an energetic American naval officer, Oliver Hazard Perry, managed to build a fleet of green timbered ships. After Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo in 1815, Europe slumped into a piece of exhaustion. RELIGIOUS • Congressionalist, Methodist, Baptist ARTS/CULTURE • A comic, “The Fall of Washington” or “Maddy In Full Flight” put President Madison into a humiliating withdrawal from the capital in 1814 when British forces put the torch to Washington DC. Anti-Federalists cartoon shows Great Britain welcoming back its “Yankee Boys” with open arms, promising them “plenty molasses and codfish, plenty of goods to smuggle, honors, titles, and nobility into the bargain.” TECHNOLOGY • American naval officer, Oliver Hazard Perry, managed to build a fleet of green-timbered ships. The overconfident British, numbering some 8000 battle season veterans, blundered badly; they made a mistake of launching an assault on the entrenched American riflemen and canoneers. ECONOMIC • Nationalism likewise manifested itself in manufacturing. Americans took pride in fact ones that recently mushroomed forth, largely as a result of the self-imposed embargoes and the war states often cutting their prices below cost in effort to strangle the American war. SOCIAL • The republic shown that it would resist, sword in hand what it regarded as grievous wrongs. Other nations developed a new respect for America’s fighting prowess. Naval officers like Perry and Macdonough were the most effective type of negotiators.
CHAPTER 13 POLITICAL • Vigorous political conflict once feared, came to be celebrated as necessary for the health of the democracy. New political partied emerged. New styles of campaigning took hold. A new chapter opened in history of American politics. The political land scope of 1824 was similar in its broad outlines, to that of 1796. by 1840, it would be almost unrecognizable. INTELLECTUAL • THE Democratic party institutionalized divisions that had vexed the Revolutionary generation and came to constitute an important part of the nation’s checks and balances on political power. John Adam’s land policy likewise antagonized the Westerners. They clamored for wide open expansion and represented the President’s well-meaning attempts to curb feverish speculations in the public domain. ARTS/CULTURE • Symptoms of a Locked Jaw: the picture depicts an outraged and outmaneuvered Henry Clay vainly tries to “muzzle” Andrew Jackson after signing message vetoing the bill to recharter the Bank of the United States. TECHNOLOGY • The wool and textile industries were booming and forward thinking Yankees came to believe that their future prosperity would flow from the factory rather than from the sea. In 1824, Congress had increased the general tariff significantly, but wool manufacturers bleated for still higher barriers. Southerners , as heavy consumers of manufactured goods with little manufacturing industry of their own, were hostile to tariffs. ECONOMIC • Economic distress and the slavery issue raised the political states in the 1820s and 1830s. Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods, but they also drove up prices for all Americans and invited retaliatory tariffs on American agricultural exports abroad. SOCIAL • In the 1830s, the Democrats faced an equally vigorous opposition party in the form the Whigs. New form of politicking emerged in this era, as candidates used banners, badges, parades, barbecues, free drinks, and baby kissing to “get out the vote.” Voter turnout rose dramatically. Only about ¼ of eligible voters cast a ballot in the presidential election of 1824, but it doubled 4 years later.
CHAPTER 14 POLITICAL • No less revolutionary than the political upheavals of the antebellum era was the “market revolution” that transformed a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce. In the little republic of the family, as in the Republic at large, good citizens were raised to not be meekly obedient to authority, but to be independent individuals who could make their own decisions on moral standards. INTELLLECTUAL • Legend portrays an army of muscular axmen triumphantly carving civilization out of the Western woods, but in reality, life was downright grim for most pioneer families. Americans revered nature and admired its beauty. Indeed the spirit of nationalism fed a growing belief in the uniqueness of the American wilderness. Searching for the US distinctive characteristics in this nation-conscious age, many observers found the wild unspoiled character of the land, especially in the West. RELIGIOUS • The Church of Rome was widely regarded by manly old-line American as a “foreign church”; convents were commonly referred to as “popish brothels.” Roman Catholics were on the move seeking protection for their children from Protestant indoctrination in the public schools. They began to construct an entirely separate Catholic educational system n the 1840s-an enormously expensive undertaking for a poor immigrant community but one that revealed the strength if the religious commitment. ARTS/CULTURE • George Catlin’s West unfolded as a vast panorama of flat, open space peopled only by the Indians shown in the foreground. Catlin believed that capturing the unending prairie on canvas required a new aesthetic, the sublime horizontal and an acceptance of a landscape bereft of man-built features, without “anything rising above the horizontal” ,which was a perfect straight line around the US like that of the blue and boundless sea. ECONOMIC • New England Yankees, Pennsylvania farmers and Southern yeomen all pushed West in search of cheap land and prodigious opportunities, soon to be joined by the vast numbers of immigrants from Europe, who also made their way to the country’s fast-growing cities. The westward movement also molded the physical environment. Pioneers in a hurry often exhausted the land in the tobacco regions and then pushed on, leaving behind barren and rain-gutted fields. SOCIAL • Poorly-fed, ill-clad, housed in hastily erected shanties, they were perpetual victims of diseases, depression and death. Unbearable loneliness haunted then especially the women who were cut off from human contact for days or even weeks, while confined to the cramped orbit of a dark cabin in a secluded clearing. Frontier life could be tough and crude for men as well. No holds barred wrestling, which permitted such niceties.
CHAPTER 15 POLITICAL • third revolution accompanied the reformation of American politics and the transformation of the American economy in the mid 19th century. This was a diffuse yet deeply felt commitment to improve the character of ordinary Americans, to make them more upstanding, God fearing and literate. Reform campaigns of all types flourished in sometimes bewildering abundance. The famed little red school house with one room became the shrine of democracy, regrettably it was all imperfect. INTELLECTUAL • School teachers, most of them in this era, were too often ill-trained, ill-tempered, and ill-paid. They frequently put less stress on educational advances, that were aided by improved textbooks, notably those of Noah Webster, a Yale educated Connecticut Yankee who was known as the “School Master of the Republic.” Higher education was stirring. The first-state supported universities sprang up in the South. Federal land grants nourished the growth of state institutions. RELIGIOUS • Many reformers drew their crusading zeal from religion. Beginning in the late 1790s and boling over the early 19th century, the Second Great Awakening swept through America’s Protestant churches, transforming the place of religion in American life ad sending a generation of believers out on their missions to perfect the world. Church antendance was still a regular ritual for about three-fourths of the 23 million Americans in 1850. Deism helped inspire an important spinoff from the severe Puritanism of the past. ARTS/CULTURE • Magazines flourished un the pre-Civil War year-most withered a short life. North American Review was the long-lived leader of the intellectuals. Reformers fulminated against its corrupting effects on family lines TECHNOLOGY • Mormons had methods of irrigation in the deserts. They were able to travel 1300 miles with two wheel carts. SOCIAL • Reformers promoted better public schools and nights for women as well as medicine, polygamy, celibacy, rule by prophets, and guidance by spirits.
CHAPTER 16 POLITICAL • South was not really a democracy oligarchy. In 1830, abolitionist movements took on a new energy and momentum to the proportions of a crusade. In 1833, British counterparts unchained slaves in the West Indies. INTELLECTUAL • Influenced by revolutionary idealism, Southern leaders like Thomas Jefferson talked about freeing their slaves. People predicted that logic of economy would expose slavery profitably and would eventually lead to its demise. Eli Whitey’s cotton gin invention was a great advance. RELIGIOUS • African roots were visible in slaves’ religious practices. Heavily influenced by Christianity from the Evangelists of the Second Great Awakening. Slaves molded their own religious forms from a mix of Christianity and their African elements. ARTS/CULTURE • Slaves had collars with bells around their necks to prevent them from escaping from their masters. Slaves were put up on auctions and sold regularly, which was far from unordinary in the US, primarily in the South. TECHNOLOGY • Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin brought great advances to the production and industry of cotton which led to the rise of the importing of slaves as well as auctions, plantation owners having from a few slaves slaves to hundreds to work the fields and house. ECONOMIC • King Cotton in the South. Pushing away other crops such as rice, tobacco, and sugar. Expansion of rice cultivated and created an insatiable demand for labor SOCIAL • Southern leaders were fully aware that Britain was tied to them by cotton threads
Chapter 17 • Political • John Tyler was president, disliked Jackson's my-way-or-highway, so he became a whig • James K. Polk became president in 1844 on a pro-expansion platform. • Polk sent Trist to mexico to secure a peace deal as soon as Polk's demands were met. • Relegious • 123fas • Arts/Culture • A dispute arose over between the U.S. and Britain over the Maine-Canada border because the US wanted land but Britain wanted a road built from the Atlantic port of Halifax through to Quebec. • Technology • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war. • The United States also gained California and other land from the treaty. • Economic • The U.S. would pay $15 million for the land, and assume $3.5 million in debts owed from Mexico to the U.S. • Social • American-English hatred still ran deep and a few events deepened the wounds
Chapter 18 • Political • In the election of 1852, the Democrats nominated unknown Franklin Pierce. Pierce was not a great leader, but had no enemies. • California's request to be a free state forced all of these issues onto the Congressional floor. • Arts/Culture • A dispute arose over between the U.S. and Britain over the Maine-Canada border because the US wanted land but Britain wanted a road built from the Atlantic port of Halifax through to Quebec. • Technology • At Sutter's Mill in 1848, gold was discovered. The secret was quickly out and California gold rush was on. • The next year, 1849, "Forty-Niners" flooded to California. Dreams of getting rich quick nearly always turned into either going bust or the constant hard work of moving dirt involved in mining.The United States also gained California and other land from the treaty. • Economic • Texas was paid $10 million for the land lost to New Mexico.Social • A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 had read teeth in it. Details held that (a) runaway slaves weren't given "due process" rights if caught, (b) the official that handled the case received $5 for a slave's freedom but $10 for a slave's return, and (c) officials were demanded to catch runaway slaves despite their personal convictions on the matter. • .The Ostend Manifesto said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force.
Chapter 19 • Political • James Buchanan wins the election • 1857 – Dred Scott loses Dred Scott Case • 1857 – Kansas had enough people to become a state, but would have slaves regardless • Intellectual • South thought the way slavery was portrayed was wrong and unfair in Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Religious • The “know-nothing party” was anti-catholic, anti-foreign, and consisted of old Whigs. • Arts/Cultural • Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published in 1852 and stirred North’s sense of morality • Impending crisis of the south was written at the same time but criticized the economy for being immoral. • Technology • Slaves could not be citizens • John Brown was a martyr against slavery • South Carolina seceded in 1860 because of Lincoln’s victory in election • Economic • Financial crashes of 1857: North was hit the hardest • South unaffected • 1800s Homestead Act provides • Socials • John Brown was a crazy man who led a band of followers to Pottawatomie Creek and hacked five men to death.
Chapter 20 • Political • • March 4, 1861 – Lincoln inaugurated as president, having gotten into DC • o Split US pleased. European Countries – US was only major display of democracy • • Monroe Doctrine will be undermined if CSA allowed Europe • • Most forts in south gave up power to confederacy; fort Sumter was among the 2 that didn’t. • • April 12, 1811 – cannon fire and after 34 hours, the fort surrendered. • • April 1827 – Lincoln called a naval blockade on the South. • • Remaining border states were crucial for both sides • • Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole sided w/ the South • • South depending on foreign intervention • Intellectual • • Inaugural address stated there would be no conflict unless the south provoked • • Marked the restoration of the union his top goal and offered doubts about it splitting • • Geographically, US cannot be split • • Deep south felt Lincoln was now waging an aggressive war • • To retain border states, Lincoln used moral persuasion and method of dubious legality—in Maryland declared marital law to return a state that would isolate DC • Technological • • South was handicapped by a shortage of factories and manufacturing plants, but during the war, those developed in the South • • Charles Francis Adam’s persuaded Britain not to build any more ships for the confederacy. • Economical • • Split US brought questions about sharing national debt • • Supplies @ Fort Sumter
Chapter 21 • Political • Battle of Bull Run (aka Battle of Manassas) ended short-war theories • General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s me held their line • On paper, south won, but battle showed importance of plan and preparation to both sides --- resulting an interim of nine months • Battle of Antietam Creek let Lincoln announce Emancipation Proclamation • Freed slaves • Gave north moral freedom • Cause for war became clear: restore nation and end slavery • Did not free slaves on border states and went against 13th amendment • Lincoln returned to Gettysburg in Autumn to give Gettysburg Address • To rally troops, boost morale, and assert troops didn’t die in vain • “Radical Republicans” felt Lincoln was not doing his job enough to win the war or help blacks and punish south. • War democrats supports Lincoln • Clement L. Valandigham was Lincoln’s loudest opponent • Lincoln won w/ creation of “Union Party” (Republicans+War Democrats) • Battle of Gettysburg lasted 3 days; south won first 2 and North won 3rd and overall battle (June 1-3, 1868) • 3rd day highlighted by Pickett’s charge • Lincoln finally appointed better-suited Ulysses S. Grant (who failed @ Battle of Shiloh but was redeemed at Vicksburg, Mississippi. • General William Tecumseh Sherman was in Charge of dividing the south by land • Grant called “meat grinder”, motto: “When in doubt, fight” • Willing to sacrifice casualties because south could not last longer than he • April 186: Lee surrendered to Grant @ Appomattox courthouse in Virginia • Only a few days after South surrendered, Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth=instant martyr
Chapter 21 (continued) • Intellectual • 34-year-old Gon. George McClellan, master organizer and planner, put in charge of getting US army ready • Planned to take Richmond Virginia, capital of the south • Peninsula Campaign: North moved by sea then up to historic Yorktown Peninsula • Confederate Jeb Stuart’s Calvary rode completely around McClellan • Robert E. Lee struck back in 7 days pushing McClellan back to sea; major win for south (McClellan demoted) • North summed up new plan: blockade, divide, and conquer • Lincoln drafted to free slaves • General Winfield Scotts “anaconda” plan (slow for four years) • Lee struck at second Battle of Bull Run and Lincoln placed General John Pope, who was badly beaten • Lee made a mistake to invade North @ Antietam • Lure border states to south • Draw war out of VA • Boost southern morale • Lee and south lost battle of Antietam creek, convincing Europe to stay out of war • General AE Burnside (North) defeated soundly at Chancellorsville, VA (Lee’s most impressive win) • General George Meade replaced Hooker
Chapter 21 (continued) • Technology • Southerners created threat to blockade w/ C.S.S Merrimack, an ironclad, greatly protected form cannon fire • North responded w/ the Monitor, also ironclad • Merrimack and Monitor battled in Chesapeake Bay, March 9th, 1862 w/ Merrimack chased away • Wooden ships were ending/becoming steam • Economic • Civil war cost 600k lives, 15 billion dollars physically destroyed South • Social • Lincoln’s proclamation accused of inciting slave rebellion • “Copperheads” Lincoln’s most vicious opponents since they struck at his heels • Usually from “butternut region,” Southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
Chapter 22 Political • President Johnson pardons Rebel Leaders in 1868 • Johnson attracted favorable attention in the North when he refused to secede his own state • 1863, Lincoln proclaimed his “10%” reconstruction plan • State could reintegrate into union when 10% of its voters during the election of 1860 take an oath to the US and pledged to abide by emancipation. • 1864 – Wade-Davis Bill • 50% of voters take allegiance to safeguard for emancipation • Many in congress felt seceded states forfeited all their rights Religious • Church becomes a focus of Black community life • Organizations helped protect blacks Technology • Before war, five railroad lines converged on Columbia, S. Carolina • Now, nearest connecting track was 29 miles away • Baleful Black cods • Designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated blacks • First such law in Mississippi passed in 1865, followed by other southern states • Sought to restore pre-emancipation race relations Enviroment/Economic • Agriculture crippled • Crops of 1860 could not be grown until 1870 Social • Many blacks found themselves emancipated and then reenslaved • Variety of responses to the matters regarding emancipation showed the complex relationships between slave and master • 1878-1880, 25k blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi moved in a mass surge to Kansas • Schooling for blacks would be proof of their independence. • Freedmen’s Bureau intended to be welfare for freedmen and white refugees • Made March 3, 1865 • President Andrew Jackson opposed • Expires in 1872
Chapter 23 Political • Republicans nominated civil war General Grant=great soldier, but no political experience • Democrats became disorganized since they can only denounce military reconstruction • Politics become corrupt w/ railroad promoters cheating clients, stock market investors were cancer in public eye + too many judges, legislators put power up for hire • “Tweed ring” (Tammy Hall) of NYC headed by “Boss Tweed” employed bribery, graft+fake elections to cheat the guy $200 million • Failed to see corruption going on • 1872 republican congress passed a general amnesty act that removed political disabilities from all but some 500 former confederate leader panic of 1873 cause recession • Panic broke out because too many railroads and factories are being formed that the existing markets could not bare and over loaning by banks Intellectual • “Gilded Age” coined by Mark Twain hinting good times Religious • Republicans=Puritanism • Democrats=Roman Catholics Art • Thomas Wast, political cartoonist constantly drew against Tammany’s corruption Enviroment/Economic • Population grew mostly because of immigration • Silver=underrated • Greenback began to regain their value making only few exchange it for gold during redemption Day in 1879 • 1877 Wages got cut by 10% • Labor slows down due to friction between races like Irish and Chinese • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act • Pendleton Act of 1883 prohibited financial assessments or jobholders in late 1887 lowered tariffs • Treasury dropped $100 million • Cleveland promised to lower tariffs but failed Social • Republicans got Grant elected by “waving the bloody shirt” (reliving war victories) • Millionaires were Sir Fisk and Jay Gould, they made plot to corner gold but failed • 1875, public learned about whiskey ring robbing the treasury • Reformers organized liberal Republican Party and nominated Harace Greeley who was a signer at Tetterson Davis’ bail bond. • James A. Garfield major general in civil war did fair treatment during reconstruction.
Chapter 24 Political • Congress gave land to railroad companies (155, 502, 994 acres) • Congress commissioned the Union Pacific Railroad to begin westward. • Central Pacific Railroad in charge in extending railroad eastward towards California. • Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 banned rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates openly. • Various ways were created to eliminate competition and maximize profits. • Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890, forbade combinations (trusts, pools, interlocking directorates, holding companies) in restraint of trade, without any distinction between “good” and “bad” trusts. Intellectual • “Big Four” – Collis Huntington, Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker and Mark Hopkins, they were involved in building the Central Pacific Railroad and developing California's railroad system. • Creation of railroad leads to 4 national time zones. • By 1894, U.S. became first largest manufacturers in the world. Religion Arts/Culture Technology • Transcontinental railroad broken after South seceded • 4 transcontinental railroads (North Pacific, Southwest Desert, South Pacific and Great Northern) • 1900 American produced a lot of steel. • Telephone • Electric light bulb Environment/Economic • Railroad production growing. • Railroads gave towns value. • Credit Mobiliers reaped $23 millin in profits. • Chinese worked for Central Pacific. • Railroad generated a lot of jobs. • 1881-1900 over 2000 strikes and 6,610,000 workers, loss of $450 million. Social • “The Grange” – formed by farmers to combat such corruption and many state efforts to top the railroad monopoly occurs but stopped by the Supreme Court. • Many of newly rich worked from proverty to wealth. • AF of L established itself on solid but narrow foundation, since it tried to speak for all the workers.
Chapter 25 Political • Before 1800’s “Old Immigration” with British Isles and Western Europe. • 1800-1900’s “New Immigration” shifted with Baltic and Slavic people of Southeastern Europe. Intellectual • Louis Sullivan worked on perfecting skyscraper which first appeared in Chicago in 1885. • Jane Addams founded Hull House in 1889 to teach children and adults the skill and knowledge that they need to survive and succeed in America, she won Noble Peace Prize in 1889. • Dwight Lyman Moody proclaims the gospel of kindness and forgiveness. • The Moody Bible Institute founded in Chicago in 1889 • W.E.B. Du Bois founded National Association for the Advancement of colored People in 1910. • Victoria Woodhull proclaimed free love. Religion • “Social Gospel” insisting that churched tackle the burning social issues of the day. • Churches thought Satin was winning battle of good and evil with material gains. • Roman Catholic and Jewish gained many new followers due to new immigrants. • Mary Baker Eddy founded The Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science). • Catholic Schools. Arts/Culture • Formal Education • Colleges and Universities • Libraries leading to more novel’s in people’s homes. • Baseball, wrestling, basketball and football became popular. Technology • Skyscrapers • Electricity, indoor plumbing and telephones made city life more alluring. • Department Stores (Macy’s and Marshall Field’s) • Linotypes in 1885 Environment/Economic • From 1870-1900 American population doubled and city’s population tripled. • Moves to cities produced a lot of trash, crime, unwashed bodies, impure water and droppings making the city smell and unsanitary. • Immigrants often controlled by powerful bosses like Boss Tweed. • More public schools and free textbooks funded by tax payers. • 1900 = 6000 high schools • Formal education = solution to poverty Social • Southeaster Europeans accounted for 19% of immigrants in U.S. in 1800 than 60% in 1900’s. • Anti-Foreign organization returned to go against new immigrants. • More feminist, women activist present. • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals created in 1866.
Chapter 26 Political • Federal government tried to calm the Indian by signing treaties at Fort Laramie in 1850 and Fort Atkinson in 1853 with chiefs of tribes but failed. • 1860 the U.S. intensified its effort by herding Indians into smaller reservations. • Many Native American fought back. • Indians were subdues due to railroads, white man’s disease, buffalo extermination, wars and loss of land. • Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 dissolved legal entities of all tribes. • Women found new rights in western land. • Homestead Act of 1862 allowed people to get as much as 160 acres of land. • Panic of 1893 worked up the passion of populist. • McKinley was presidency in 1896 election. • The Dingley Tariff Bill was passed to replace the Wilson-Gorman law and raise more revenue, raising the tariff level to whopping 46.5 percent. Intellectual • Helen Hunt Jackson wrote the book “A Century of Dishonor” and her novel “Ramona”. • First national park was Yellowstone founded in 1872 followed by Yosemite and Sequoia in 1890. • “Safety Valve Theory” in frontier. • The Grange founded by Oliver H. Kelley improves lives of isolated farmers through social, educational and fraternal activities. • Eugene Debs lead Pullman Strike in Chicago. • McKinley – Republican candidate in 1896 and a conservative businessman. • Bryan – delivered speech in 1896 Democratic Convention in Chicago. Religion Arts/Culture • Great West still untamed but as white settlers began to populate, the Indians turned against each other and more infected with Whiteman’s disease. Technology • Meat packing industry Environment/Economics • Violence among Indians and whites lead to various massacres. • Colonel Custer found gold in Back Hills of South Dakota and gold seekers invaded causing Sitting Bull and the Sioux to go on a war path. • Many people killed buffalo for meat, ski and tongue. • Buffalo hunting was a sport were part of the buffalo was left to rot since hunters only got some parts of it. • 1885 fewer than 1000 buffalos left. • Demand for food and meat increased. • “Long Drive” emerged to become spectacular feeder of slaughterhouses. • Farms increased in production. • 1880-1890 – drought, grasshopper plagues and heat waves threatened farmers, leading to half of the farmer becoming disorganized with their farming. Social • Nez Perce Indians revolted gold seekers when they shrunk the government reservation by 90%. • Zealous white missionaries forced Indians to convert in 1884. • Many people began to move to frontier land. • Greenback Labor Party attracted farmers in 1878, • Farmers’ Alliance found in late 1870’s was another coalition of farmers seeking to overthrow the chains from the bank and railroads that bound them