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Modernization, Reform and “Defensive Developmentalism”. Egypt under Mehmet Ali Ottoman Empire & the Tanzimat Persia under the Qajars. Mehmet Ali. Winds of Change in Mehmet Ali’s Egypt. After the defeat of the French forces, Mehmet Ali took power as the governor of Egypt.

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modernization reform and defensive developmentalism

Modernization, Reform and “Defensive Developmentalism”

Egypt under Mehmet Ali

Ottoman Empire & the Tanzimat

Persia under the Qajars

winds of change in mehmet ali s egypt
Winds of Change in Mehmet Ali’s Egypt
  • After the defeat of the French forces, Mehmet Ali took power as the governor of Egypt.
  • Committed to far-reaching reforms:
  • Abolition of tax farming
    • Let’s invite the tax farmers to dinner and…
  • Land confiscated from tax farmers and religious endowments
  • Control of agricuture
    • State decides what crops peasants may grow, supplied peasants with seeds, tools, and fertilizer, purchases crops from them for sale
    • Egypt shifts from subsistence to cash crop farming (tobacco, sugar, indigo, and cotton)
  • Industrialization, especially manufacturing munitions and textiles for army
  • Education was expanded, including the opening of schools to girls.
mehmet ali s military
Mehmet Ali’s Military
  • Transformation of the army
    • Adoption of European uniforms, weapons, and tactics
    • Uses Egyptian peasants as soldiers-- hadn’t been done in centuries--hated by peasants
  • Mehmet Ali’s military expansion
    • To Sudan to gain gold slaves, and control of west bank of Red Sea
    • To Arabia to expand control to east bank of Red Sea-- coffee trade (Mocha)
    • To Syria to gain access to ports, long-distance trade routes, and raw materials like silk and timber
  • Mehmet defeated in Syria in 1840 by British and Ottoman forces.
  • Hereditary dynasty -- his sons continued to rule Egypt.
british influence
British Influence
  • Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869
  • By 1881, 80% of the traffic passing through the Suez Canal was British owned
it all starts with cotton
It All Starts With Cotton
  • Egyptian economy increasingly dependent on cotton
    • Cotton prices are high during US Civil War
    • Economy expands, but heavily dependent on world economy
    • Egyptian rulers borrow heavily from European investors to finance economic improvements
    • Cotton price drops after Civil War
    • World depression devastates Egypt in 1873
  • In the early 1880s Urabi Revolt led by Colonal Ahmed Urabi
    • Result of bankruptcy & anti-British sentiment
    • Brutally repressed by British forces in 1882
    • British occupation continues until 1956
ottoman government society
Ottoman Government & Society
  • Sultan is the Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage.
  • The stability of the empire depended on the maintenance of a fine balance between the central power and regional powers.
  • Each community was responsible for the allocation and collection of its taxes, education and issues relating to personal status issues such as marriage, divorce and inheritance.
  • The Millet System recognized non-Muslim communities as integral parts of the empire.
    • Sometimes they were allowed autonomy, especially in matters pertaining to religion and culture.
  • The standing army first organized by Sultan Murad I.
  • Consisted mainly of Christian youths who were converted to Islam and specifically conscripted to serve in the army.
  • To ensure the loyalty of the elite force, they were given many privileges but were separated from civil society and forbidden to marry.
  • By 1820 there were 135 000 Janissaries
urgency of reform
Urgency of Reform
  • The French invasion of Egypt in 1798
  • Local rulers accumulate more power
    • Mehmet Ali
  • Nationalist movements in Greece & the Balkans
  • Growing European economic influence
    • Treaty of Balta Liman
tanzimat reform from above
Tanzimat – Reform from above
  • Introduction of reforms from the 1830 to modernize the empire. Led by Rashid Pasha, Minister of Foreign Affairs.
  • Prior to this the Janissaries were violently destroyed [“The Auspicious Incident”-1826]. They had become a law unto themselves, supported conservative leaders and opposed reform.
  • Reforms: the abolition of tax farming; standardization of military conscription; campaign against corruption
  • The establishment of a Ministry of Education
      • New schools followed European curricula; at first had many European teachers
      • Students had to master French or German before they could study medicine, engineering, or science
tanzimat continued
Tanzimat- continued
  • Belief that liberal reforms would save the Ottoman Empire
  • In 1876 a new Ottoman Constitution was introduced, which allowed for elections to a chamber of deputies and senate.
  • European pressure produces a new official proclamation, Islahat Fermani (1856)
    • Grants equal rights under the law to all Ottoman subjects, Muslim or not
    • Some millet leaders feared the loss of their autonomy, and some conservative Muslims were angered
  • Tanzimat reforms pressed on in land ownership, codification of laws, and reorganization of the millets
reform through concessions
Reform through Concessions
  • Qajar dynasty is weak and relatively young
  • Support modernization, try to raise cash by granting concessions
    • Reuter Concession (1872)
      • “the most complete and extraordinary surrender of the entire resources of a kingdom into foreign hands…”
    • Tobacco Concession (1890)
    • D’Arcy Concession (1901)- petroleum