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Human Health Risk Assessment: World Trade Centre Disaster. Clinton S Young Itza Mendoza Sanchez Vaishali Kushwaha. World Trade Centre: Introduction. Seeds of WTC planted after World War II in 1940’s, Dedicated in 1973

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human health risk assessment world trade centre disaster

Human Health Risk Assessment:World Trade Centre Disaster

Clinton S Young

Itza Mendoza Sanchez

Vaishali Kushwaha

world trade centre introduction
World Trade Centre: Introduction
  • Seeds of WTC planted after World War II in 1940’s, Dedicated in 1973
  • City chose to build the WTC instead of building a new tunnel and large bridge over the Hudson River
  • 16 acre site in Lower Manhattan
  • 7 buildings including two 110 storey towers, 8 years of construction
world trade centre facts
World Trade Centre: Facts
  • To create the 16-acre WTC site, 5 streets were closed off and 164 buildings were demolished
  • 1.2 million cubic yards of earth was excavated, which was used to create 23.5 acres of Liberty Park along the Hudson River
  • More than 200,000 tons (68 miles) of steel, which can make three more Brooklyn Bridges
  • 425,000 cubic yards of concrete, enough to build a 5 foot wide sidewalk from New York City to Washington, D.C.
  • Combined weight of 2 towers was more than 1.5 million tons
  • 43,600 windows with over 600,000 square feet of glass window area.
  • more than 16 miles of staircases.
  • 60,000 tons of cooling capacity, 49,000 tons of air-conditioning equipment, 239 elevators and 71 escalators
  • 23,000 fluorescent light bulbs, 12,000 miles of electrical cable, 75,000 telephones maintained by 19,600 miles of cable, 300 computer mainframes
  • More than 250,000 cans of paint were needed every year for upkeep of the Towers
  • More than 50,000 people worked in the twin towers and More than 200,000 people - half of them tourists - moved through the buildings each day
  • $110.3 million in gold and 120.7 million in silver were buried in the rubble
  • It is the first skyscraper in the world destroyed by terrorists
world trade centre disaster
World Trade Centre: Disaster
  • September 11, 2001, morning 8.45 hijacked 767 commercial jet airplane hit north tower.
  • 18 minutes later, 9.03am another plane hit south tower
  • S-tower suffered complete structural collapse 1st and then N-tower collapsed
  • 47 storey office got damaged, caught fire and later on collapsed totally
  • All the seven buildings of WTC collapsed and nearby buildings got significantly damaged
  • About 2800 people died
  • The fires were fed by more than 91,000 L of jet fuel and went on for days
  • Airborne dust from the collapse and fumes from burning of the towers blanketed Lower Manhattan with dust containing a complex mixture of PM, asbestos, various metals, dioxins, benzene, glass fiber, PCBs, PAHs, and VOCs
world trade centre disaster risk assessment
World Trade Centre Disaster: Risk Assessment

The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the potential risk to health of people working or living in the vicinity of the WTC, immediately after the WTC collapse.

The methodology used for the risk assessment

  • Hazard Identification and Data evaluation
  • Exposure Assessment
  • Toxicity Assessment
  • Risk Characterization
world trade centre disaster data collection
World Trade Centre Disaster: Data Collection

Air quality in and around New York has been monitored by:

  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
  • New York City Department of Environmental Protection
  • New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration

EPA data has been used for the Analysis

  • samples of air, dust, water, river sediments and drinking water were tested for the presence of pollutants
  • Data collection from more than 20 fixed air monitors in and around ground zero, regional monitors in the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island, and more than 20 fixed air monitors at the Staten Island Landfill (where debris from the search and recovery and excavation operations is shifted)
  • Data was collected and evaluated for 7 contaminants/contaminant classes:

Particulate matter (PM)

Metals (lead, chromium, and nickel)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Dioxins

volatile organic compounds (VOCs; benzene and several others) Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Asbestos

world trade centre disaster data sampling
World Trade Centre Disaster: Data Sampling
  • Asbestos in Air

Standard under AHERA, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act

  • Asbestos in Bulk Dust

The 1% definition

  • Particulate Matter in Air

Two methods for measuring particulate matter: The filter method , The continuous method

  • Drinking Water

Sampled drinking water from 13 water mains, evaluated the samples against federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs), no contaminants were detected

  • Benzene/ VOCs in Air

all measurements were "grab" samples, lasting a few minutes

  • Metals in Air

analyzed 20 metals, about a third of these metals: not detected and thirteen metals: detected

world trade centre disaster data evaluation
World Trade Centre Disaster: Data Evaluation
  • very limited data available on the levels of exposure that occurred to individuals due to direct contact with the plume of smoke and dust generated by the WTC collapse on September 11
  • earliest reported data are from asbestos monitoring, which began on September 14
  • data available is space variable as well as time variable
  • the maximum concentration for all the contaminants available has been chosen in order to calculate risk
  • comparing a single concentration with the available screening values (which are for average concentrations and for continuous exposure) makes almost all the contaminants Chemical of Concerns (COC’s).
toxicity assessment
Toxicity Assessment

Asbestos

Nickel

Choromium

Vinyl chloride

Human carcinogens

dichloroethane 1,1-

hexachloro- 1,3- butadiene

benzene

chloroform

Probable human carcinogens

benzyl-chloride

bromoform

butadiene 1,3

carbon tetrachloride

dichloroethane 1,2-

dioxane 1,4

Possible human carcinogens

toxicity assessment1
Toxicityassessment

Hematoxic:

benzene

styrene

trichloroethane 1,1,1-

antimony

arsenic

cadmium

selenium

zinc

Pulmotoxic

bromoethane

benzene

dichloropropene trans1,3-

methylnaphtalene,

naphthalene

toluene

vinyl acetate

chromium

PM2.5

beryllium

Hepatoxic:

benzene

bromoform

chlorobenzene

chloroform

dichlorobenzene 1,4-

MTBE

styrene

tetrachloroethane

toluene

vinyl chloride

Neurotoxic:

butadiene

styrene

toluene

barium

manganese

mercury

xylene

Nephrotoxic:

acetone

MTBE

toluene

barium

Dermatoxic

chromium

arsenic

sylver

exposure assessment
Exposure assessment
  • To evaluate the exposure pathways it is necessary to define:
  • a)      Source of contamination
  • b)      Media contaminated
  • c)      Type of contaminant
  • d)      Route of human exposure.
exposure assessment1
Exposure assessment
  • Source of contamination

Off-site

On-site

exposure assessment2
Exposure assessment
  • Media contaminated
    • air
  • Type of contaminants
    • Asbestos, benzene,dioxin, metals,

PM, PCBs, VOCs

  • Route of human exposure
    • inhalation
exposure assessment3
Exposure assessment
  • Exposure scenarios
exposure assessment4
Exposure assessment
  • Parameter values
wtc building exposures
WTC Building Exposures
  • Four Buildings
    • North
    • South
    • Austin
    • Building 5
  • Carcinogen vs. Non-carcinogen
  • Adults Only
  • Occupational Exposures
wtc north
Carcinogens

Non-carcinogens

WTC North
wtc south
Carcinogens

Non-carcinogens

WTC South
wtc austin
Carcinogens

Non-carcinogens

WTC Austin
average exposures
Average Exposures
  • Larger sampling area
  • Children and Adults
  • Different exposures
    • Industrial
    • Recreational
    • Residential
summary
Carcinogens

Benzene

chloroform

dichloroethane

vinyl chloride

Dioxane

Bromoform

carbon tetrachloride

hexachlorobutadiene

Non-carcinogens

Butadiene

vinyl acetate

bromoethane

chromium

chlorobenzene

benzene

MTBE

Summary