kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata n.
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KINGDOM ANIMALIA Phylum Echinodermata. Members of the Phylum Echinodermata. Date back 570 million years ago 13,000 fossil species Only 7,000 species today Most are marine and benthic (90%) Range in size (<1cm to 2 m) 5 Classes. Common Body Plan. Adults are pentaradially symmetrical

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members of the phylum echinodermata
Members of the Phylum Echinodermata
  • Date back 570 million years ago
  • 13,000 fossil species
  • Only 7,000 species today
  • Most are marine and benthic (90%)
  • Range in size (<1cm to 2 m)
  • 5 Classes
common body plan
Common Body Plan
  • Adults are pentaradially symmetrical
  • 5 sets of body parts around an oral-aboral axis
common body plan1
Common Body Plan
  • However, larvae are bilaterally symmetrical
  • Settle near adults of their species and attach to substrate
  • Metamorphosis: left side becomes oral surface of the adult and right side becomes aboral
  • Larval mouth/anus disappear, gut migrates to adult position, and new mouth/anus open
  • Unique system of calcareous plates (ossicles)
  • Reduced in sea cucumbers
  • Fused to form a solid test in sea urchins/sand dollars
  • Skeletal elements bear pincer-like structures called pedicellariae
  • Use to rid body of debris, defense, grasp objects to hide, or capture/hold prey
water vascular system
Water-vascular system
  • Hydraulic system of canals and reservoirs controls the movement of tube feet (podia)
  • Critical to locomotion, gas exchange, feeding, and sensory reception
water vascular system1
Water-vascular system
  • Water enters sieve plate (madreporite)
  • Flows from stone canal to radial canals in each arm
  • Lateral canals perpendicular to the radial canal terminate in muscular bulb (ampulla) connected to a tube foot
water vascular system2
Water-vascular system
  • Water enters bulb, it contracts and water forced into foot
  • Extends foot, pressing terminal sucker onto substrate
  • Foot contracts, forcing water back into bulb and raises center of sucker
  • Creates a vacuum seal; only broken when bulb contracts water into foot again
  • There are 6 classes of echinoderms
  • 5 classes are described on the following slides
class crinoidea
Class Crinoidea
  • Most ancient/primitive
  • 625 species
  • Base of 5 or 10 arms that can branch up to 200 arms
  • Suspension feeders
  • Each arm bears suckerless podia that produce mucus to capture detritus and transport it to mouth
class crinoidea1
Class Crinoidea
  • Sessile sea lily
  • Cup-like body attached to stalk
  • Attached to substrate
  • Can bend stalk and flex/extend arms
class crinoidea2
Class Crinoidea
  • Free-moving feather star
  • Stalk lost during larval development
  • Can crawl/swim
  • Jointed appendages (cirri) help it regain balance
class asteroidea
Class Asteroidea
  • 1500 species of sea stars
  • 5 or more broad arms surround a central disk
  • Crawl on rocks or live on sea bottom
  • Most are scavengers or predators
  • Each arm bears podia with suckers
  • Evert stomach into prey and digest it
class ophiuroidea
Class Ophiuroidea
  • 2000 species of brittle stars
  • Usually concealed in sand or under objects
  • Some live in sponges or other colonial organisms
  • Only 5 arms that are usually highly branched
class ophiuroidea1
Class Ophiuroidea
  • Arms are distinct from central disk
  • Can crawl/cling
  • Predators, scavengers, or suspension feeders
  • Flexible arms bear suckerless podia that secrete mucus to entrap food and transport it to mouth
class echinoidea
Class Echinoidea
  • 1000 species of sea urchins/sand dollars
  • Movable spines and podia surround body; used for locomotion
  • Herbivorous, detrivorous, suspension feed, a few predators
class echinoidea1
Class Echinoidea
  • Unique feeding apparatus called Aristotle’s lantern
  • Hard plates and muscles just inside mouth
  • Possesses 5 calcareous teeth
  • Teeth protract to scrape algae off rocks or tear chunks of kelp
class holothuroidea
Class Holothuroidea
  • 1150 species of sea cucumbers
  • Mucus-covered oral tentacles trap on plankton or ingest sand organic matter
  • Gut modified to produce respiratory trees used for gas exchange
  • Expel portions of these trees as defense mechanism; regenerate