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Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca. Phylum Mullusca – snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopus, etc. (> 50,000 species – maybe up to 100,000??) General characteristics:. Bilaterally symmetrical (or secondarily asymmetrical), coelomate. Well developed organ systems.

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Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca

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kingdom animalia phylum mullusca
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca

Phylum Mullusca – snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopus, etc. (> 50,000 species – maybe up to 100,000??)

General characteristics:

Bilaterally symmetrical (or secondarily asymmetrical), coelomate

Well developed organ systems

Have mantle with shell glands that secrete calcareous epidermal spicules,

shell plates, or shells

Have large, well defined muscular foot, often with a flattened creeping sole,

(in squids and octopus, the foot is modified into tentacles / arms.

kingdom animalia phylum mullusca3
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Mullusca

Generalized mulluscan body:

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversity

Gastropods – slugs, snails, and nudibranchs

Not all gastropods have shell (blue). There is a high level of variation amongst different

shells; why do you think this is? How do you think nudibranchs that do not have any

Shells defend themselves?

Most gastropods have a large, fleshy foot which is used for locomoation (green)

Most gastropods have a unique file-like mouth part called the radula (orange).

Herbivorous forms use it for grazing, carnivorous forms have modified it into a drill, or

a harpoon that can inject toxins into their prey.

Most gastropods have gills for gas exchange.

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity gastropods
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversity - Gastropods


What do you think is the function

of this shell?


How do you think this animal

defends itself?

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity chitons
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversitychitons

Chitons also have a large foot (green) that

is used for locomotion and clamping down

on rocks; gills (yellow) for gas exchange;

a shell made up of 7 or 8 individual plates

(blue); and a radula (orange) specialized

for grazing on algae and some encrusting


What do you think is the advantage

of having multiple (7 or 8) shell plates?

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity bivlaves
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc Diversitybivlaves

Bivalves have two shells, hinged along

One edge, with the animal in between (blue).

Most bivalves use their gills (yellow) for both

gas exchange, as well as for food capture. How

do you think this may work?

The foot (green) of some bivalves is reduced,

While in others, it is specialized for digging.

Here is a picture of a clam.

Bivalves also include mussels, oysters,

and scallops.

kingdom animalia mullusc diversity cephalopods
Kingdom Animalia –Mullusc DiversityCephalopods

Cephalopods – octopus, squids, nautilus, and cuttlefish

Cephalopods have generally modified their

foot (green) into tentacles (arms) that allow them

to manipulate potential prey items, as well as to

move around their environments

Their shells (blue) can be complete and external

(nautilus), reduced and internal (squid), or completely

non-existent (octopus). What is the advantage of each?

Most cephalopods use gills (yellow) for gas exchange,

and have a specialized beak (orange) for tearing

food particles.

Finally, most cephalopods use jet propulsion

for movement and swimming…

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

Phylum Ehinodermata (spiny skin) – sea stars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, etc. (~8,000 - 10,000 species)

General characteristics:

All echinoderms are marine

All echinoderm adults have basic pentamerous radial symmetry derived from

bilaterally symmetrical larvae

Nervous system diffuse, decentralized, usually of a nerve net, nerve ring, and

radial nerves.

Have separate sexes, although hermaphroditic species do exist

Have a water vascular system composed of a series of fluid-filled canals,

usually evident externally as muscular podia

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata10
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

The water vascular system:



Gas exchange


Food manipulation

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata11
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

The sea star grabs on to the mussel, pulls on the shell until there is an opening,

then ejects its stomach into the mussel for digestion and absorption of the food.

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata12
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

Echinoderm diversity – Asteroids (sea stars):

Ecologically very important carnivores.

Have ability to regenerate arms.

A lot more active than you may think…

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata13
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

Echinoderm diversity – Ophiroids (brittle stars):

Very delicate, these brittle stars

will readily lose their arms in order

To avoid predation.

There are carnivore, planktivore,

and herbivore forms…

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata14
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

Echinoderm diversity – Holotheroids (sea cucumbers):

Mostly detritavores, these animals

defend themselves by toxins in their

skin, but also by evisceration… how

do you think that works?

kingdom animalia phylum echinodermata15
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Echinodermata

Echinoderm diversity – Echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars):

These animals can be herbivores, carnivores,

or planktivores.

They are very common, and in some places,

can play a major ecological role:

e.g. off the coast of California,

consider the relationship between

sea urchins, sea otters, and kelp…

kingdom animalia phylum tardigrada
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Tardigrada

Phylum Trdigrada (water bears)

~ 400 – 500 species

Free living or symbiotic, they are

found all over…

Tardigrades are known for their

Anabiosis – state of greatly recuced

metabolic activity during

unfavorable conditions; and

Cryptobiosis – an extreme state of

anabiosis or dormancy where

all external sings of metabolic

activity are missing!!

How tough are they?

check it out…

kingdom animalia phylum tardigrada17
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Tardigrada

Tartigrades have recovered from immersion in extremely toxic compounds such as

brine, ether, absolute alcohol, and even liquid helium!!

They have survived temperature ranging from +149 C to –272 C (almost at absolute zero!!)

They have also survived high vacuums, intense ionizing radiation, and long periods with no

environmental oxygen.

Former Soviet zoologists claim that tardigrades survived experiments in outer space!!

In one case, a 120 year old dried moss specimen from a museum was accidentally moistened,

yielding living tardigrades!!! ….. You get the picture….

kingdom animalia phylum chordata
Kingdom Animalia – Phylum Chordata

Major Characteristics found in all chordates:

1. Notochord – a stiff but flexible rod along the length of the body

2. Dorsal hollow nerve chord – neural structure that develops into the

brain and and central nervous system

3. Pharyngeal gill slits – openings or grooves found on the cavity behind the mouth

(found in all chordates at least at some stage of their life cycle)

4. Post-anal tail

Chordates include two invertebrate groups including lancelets and tunicates, and one

vertebrate group that is further subdivided into different groups of fish,

amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

You are responsible for all the text material on chordates – p434 to p445.