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History 101 Chapter 13

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  1. History 101 Chapter 13

  2. Manifest Destiny • 19th century American belief that Anglo-Saxons were destined to expand from the East Coast of the United States to the Western Coast of North America

  3. Manifest Destiny • 1840s slavery moved to the center stage of American politics, because of Westward Expansion • Depression that began in 1837 sparked a large migration of settlers further west. • 1840 and 1845 5000 emigrants made the difficult 2000-mile journey by wagon train to Oregon • By 1860 3000,000 men, women, and children had braved disease, starvation, and natural barriers of the Rocky Mts to travel overland to Oregon and CA

  4. Appalachians - through the Cumberland Gap (KY) into the Ohio River valley Rockies – mountain men fur trapped Soon develop overland trails to mass migrate settlers Oregon Trail – began in 1842; 4-6 months travel. Wanted land. Mormon Trail – 1847 led by Brigham Young, Mormons settle near the Great Salt Lake to escape religious persecution Santa Fe Trail – began in 1821 to trade with Mexico California Trail – to Northern California to get rich Expansion Daniel Boone

  5. Overland Immigration to the West • Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward.

  6. The Oregon Trail-Albert Bierstadt, 1869

  7. The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! • By the mid-1840s “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. • The joint British-U.S. occupation ended in 1846.

  8. The Mexican Frontier: NM, CA, TX • When Mexico achieve its independence from Spain in 1821 had a population of 6.5 million • California, New Mexico, and Texas were isolated and sparsely settled outposts surrounded by Indian country. • NM 30,000 Spaniards 10,000 Natives • CA 3,200 missionaries, soldiers, and settlers 20,000 Natives on land owned by missionaries 150,000 tribes in the interior • Californios: Mexican cattle ranchers

  9. 1821 – Mexico wins independence from Spain 1822 – Missourian Stephen Austin received permission from the Mexican government to establish a colony in Texas on three conditions. Mexico abolished slavery, but Americans could bring their slaves Become a Mexican citizen Convert to Catholicism Americans ignored these and moved anyway They then pushed for greater political power Texas Stephen Austin

  10. 1830 Mexican government annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the U.S. • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, sent an army in 1835 to impose central authority • Sparked a chaotic revolt in Texas • 3/13/36 Santa Anna army stormed the Alamo killing 187 Americans and Tejano defenders • “Remember the Alamo”

  11. Sam Houston former governor of Tennessee and first President of Texas 3/2/1836 – Texans sign their declaration of independence founding the Republic of Texas Battle of San Jacinto (4/21/1836) – Texans led by Sam Houston defeat the Mexicans and capture Gen. Santa Anna Treaty of Velasco (5/14/1836) – Santa Anna is forced to sign recognizing Texan independence Texas Congress called for union with the United States, but Jackson and Van Buren shelved the question due Slavery issues 1836-1845: Texas is an independent country Sam Houston Davy Crockett Texas War for Independence

  12. Election of 1844 • John C. Calhoun wrote a letter to annex Texas to strengthen slavery • Clay and Van Buren attempted to keep slavery out of the political race • James Polk: A slaveholder receives the Southern Votes • Congress declared Texas part of the United States days before Polk’s inauguration 1845

  13. Polk’s Goals • Reduce tariff • Reestablish the independent treasury system • Settle the dispute over ownership of Oregon • Bring California into the Union

  14. 54 40 or Fight Polk’s campaign slogan • The dispute between the Oregon Territory Border with England • Compromised on the 49th parallel and secured the Puget Sound

  15. The Mexican War (1846-1848) • Causes • Dispute over southern border of the newly annexed Texas • US says Rio Grande • Mexico says Nueces River • Pres. Polk wanted to realize true manifest destiny • Nov. 1845: US sent diplomat John Slidell to buy California and New Mexico for $30 million. Mexico refused to meet with him or hear his offer. • Polk sends troops to the border, a few Americans are killed, thus providing a reason to declare war.

  16. The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt  June 14, 1846 * White settlers declare their independence in California John C. Frémont

  17. U.S. Navy sailed into Monterrey and San Francisco Harbors raised the American flag and put an end to the “bear flag republic” • 1,600 American troops occupied Santa Fe without resistance then set off to southern California

  18. Henry David Thoreau: Jailed in 1846 for refusing to pay taxes as a protest against war • Wrote an essay “On Civil Disobedience”

  19. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist,American Negotiator

  20. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 • Mexico gave up claims to Texas north of the Rio Grande. • Mexico gave the U.S. California and New Mexico, plus the modern states of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Wyoming & Colorado • U.S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).

  21. The Mexican Cession

  22. Gold Rush • 1848 gold discovered in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains • By 1852 200,000 • By 1860 360,000 • 25,000 Chinese landed between 1849 and 1852, almost all of them young men who had signed long-term labor contracts with Chinese merchants, who in turn leased them to mining and railroad companies

  23. California Gold Rush (1849)

  24. Territorial Growth to 1853 Gadsden Purchase – paid $10 million for land needed to build a southern transcontinental railroad

  25. Wilmot Proviso, 1846 • “Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.”

  26. Compromise of 1850

  27. Whigs 1852: last election where the Whigs are a powerhouse Many northern supporters abandon the party due to their willingness to compromise on slavery issues Free Soil Party Created in 1848 Sought to end slavery in new territories. New Political Parties

  28. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 • Stephen Douglas proposal for all territories to have popular sovereignty in deciding the question of slavery

  29. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 • Stephen Douglas proposal for all territories to have popular sovereignty in deciding the question of slavery

  30. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? In response to the border ruffians illegally voting and violence, Brown and his followers drag 5 men from their homes and kill them in front of their families.

  31. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? In response to the border ruffians illegally voting and violence, Brown and his followers drag 5 men from their homes and kill them in front of their families.

  32. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? In response to the border ruffians illegally voting and violence, Brown and his followers drag 5 men from their homes and kill them in front of their families.

  33. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? In response to the border ruffians illegally voting and violence, Brown and his followers drag 5 men from their homes and kill them in front of their families.

  34. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? In response to the border ruffians illegally voting and violence, Brown and his followers drag 5 men from their homes and kill them in front of their families.

  35. Cultural and Legal Limits Place was in the home Raise children Did not engage in public activities Could not vote or keep money earned Enter public life thru temperance and abolition movements 1848 – Seneca Falls Convention Wrote Declaration of Sentiments calling for women’s rights including suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Women’s Rights Movement