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American History 101 Exploration to Civil War
Three Branches of Government 1. Legislative- Congress in charge of making laws. 2. Judicial- The system of federal courts which interprets laws. Includes the Supreme Court. 3. Executive- The president and the agencies under his control which enforces the laws.
Individuals during the American Revolution Samuel Adams- Leader of the resistance to the English. Leader of the “Son’s of Liberty”. Benjamin Franklin- Represented the colonies in France and made alliance with them. Signed the Declaration of Independence. King George III- Taxed the colonists without representation. Thomas Jefferson- Delegate to the Continental Congress, wrote the Declaration of Independence, governor of Virginia for 1 year. NEVER FOUGHT IN THE WAR!
Individuals continued Thomas Paine- Wrote “Common Sense” and spurred people to revolution. George Washington- Delegate to Continental Congress, prepared military plans, commanding general of the Continental army. Developed and carried out the strategy of wearing the British down by never giving up. This eventually helped them win the war.
Battles of the American Revolution1775-1783 Lexington- First battle. “Shot heard round the world”. Concord- Directly followed battle of Lexington and became America’s first win in the American Revolution. Saratoga- This was a turning point for Washington. It was a victory for him and caused the European nations to think the Americans might win the war. With the aid of these nations, America began to win and later became free.
Battles continued Yorktown- The last major battle that ended the war. The British general Cornwallis surrendered.
Treaty of Paris Treaty in 1783 that stated America won the Revolutionary War as a sovereign nation. They gained lands between the Great Lakes, the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River.
How Grievances were addressed Colonists complained the British King… The Constitution specified… Suspended their legislatures and abolished their laws. Did not allow their legislatures to meet regularly. Imposed taxes without their consent. Every state would have a republican form of government. Congress shall meet every year. Congress, an elected body, has the authority to impose taxes.
Grievances continued The colonists complained that the British King… The constitution specified that… Refused to approve laws for establishing an independent judiciary and kept judges under the king’s rule. Deprived them of trial by jury. There would be an independent judiciary. Civil cases would be judged by a jury.
Grievances continued The colonists complained that the British king… The constitution specified that… Transported colonists overseas to be tried for made-up offenses. Individuals have the right to due process of law and to a speedy trial by a jury of the state or district where the crime occurred.
Grievances continued The colonists complained that the British king… The constitution specified that… Kept standing armies in the colonies in time of peace without the consent of colonial legislatures. Quartered troops among the colonists. Congress, not the President, has the authority to raise and support armies and militias and to wage war. Troops cannot be placed in homes without the owner’s consent.
The Civil War 1861-1865 Causes of the Civil War: Slavery, State Rights and New Territories. President during the Civil War: Abe Lincoln
Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the constitution. Amendment 1- Religious and Political Freedom Amendment 2- Right to Bear Arms Amendment 3- Quartering Troops Amendment 4- Search and Seizure Amendment 5- Rights of Accused Persons Amendment 6- Right to a Speedy, Public Trial Amendment 7- Trial by Jury in Civil Cases
Bill of Rights continued Amendment 8- Limits of Fines and Punishment Amendment 9- Rights of the People Amendment 10- Powers of States and People.
13th Amendment Abolished slavery in the United States in 1865.
14th Amendment 1868- All persons born in the United States are United States citizens. It states that all citizens are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.
15th Amendment 1870- Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color or previous condition of servitude.
Importance of Free Speech and Press You have your right to state your opinion and to hear opinions of others to participate effectively in political life.
The Articles of Confederation It was replaced because it was a weak national government leaving a great deal of power to the states.
Terminology relating to the US Government Checks and balances- No one branch has more power than the others. Federalism- State and national governments share power. Separation of powers- Each branch of government shares powers. Popular sovereignty- The government gets its authority from the people and reflects their will. Individual rights- Liberties and privileges guaranteed to each citizen.
Terminology relating to US government cont’d Unalienable rights- Rights that a government cannot take away from the person. God given rights. Republicanism- A form of government in which people elect representatives to make and carry out laws. Limited Government- Restriction on the power of the government. Checks and balances- A system of controls on the power of government in which each branch of government checks the power of the other brances
Terminology from the Civil War Stonewall Jackson- First Confederate leader who was shot by friendly fire. Ulysses S. Grant- Leader of the Northern Union. Robert E. Lee- Leader of the Southern confederates. Emancipation Proclamation- Issued by Lincoln that in January 1863, all slaves in any state in armed rebellion against the United States are free. Gettysburg- Site of Lee’s final advance onto northern soil. The South lost which turned the tide of the war. Also, the bloodiest battle of the war.
Terminology of the Civil War Continued Appomattox Courthouse- Site where Lee surrendered to Grant. Scalawags- White southerners who co-operated with the new government of the reconstruction period. Carpetbaggers- Northerners who went to the south during the reconstruction period.