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SS8H6aExplain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.
Conflict and Change
Individuals and Groups
Rule of Law
How did the following issues and events cause the Civil War?
slavery - states’ rights
Nullification - Missouri Compromise
Compromise of 1850 - Kansas/Nebraska Act
Dred Scott case - Election of 1860
Debate over secession - Alexander Stephens
Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and the resulting cotton boom led the South to focus on agriculture while the North focused on industrial growth.
- Mills (Factories that refine agricultural products)
People based their decisions,opinions, and views on what was good for only their part of the country.
Who will control the new territory out west?
The United States Congress passed the tariff of 1828 in order to increase the price of foreign goods so that the same goods manufactured in the north would be cheaper in price.
This helped northern businesses, but people in the south were having to pay more for a product that was their second choice since their first choice (foreign product) is now more expensive because of the tariff (tax) added to the cost.
By placing protective tariffs on imports, Northern business men prospered.
Southerners felt this unconstitutional and that they should not have to pay the tariff.
South Carolina even threatened to leave the union if the tariffs were not repealed.TARIFFS
The tariff of 1828 led to discussions in the South about nullification.
Nullification is the argument that a state has the right not to follow a federal law.
The state of South Carolina wanted to ignore the tariff.
By 1832, Congress slightly modified the Tariff of 1828 to appease the southern states.
This phrase refers to individual states being sovereign (or having the right to govern itself). According to the 10th amendment of the constitution…
“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
Basically, states wanted to follow their own laws, and they did not want the federal government (United States) to overrule state laws.
The main issue over states’ rights involved the institution of slavery. Southern states feared that Congress would pass laws eventually outlawing the practice of slavery, which would hurt the southern
agricultural economic way of
life involving the growing of
cotton on large plantations.
When the Georgia Trustees first envisioned their colonial experiment in the early 1730s, they sought to avoid the slave-based plantation economy that had developed in other colonies in the American South. The allure of profits from slavery, however, proved to be too powerful for white Georgia settlers to resist. By the era of the American Revolution (1775-83), African slaves constituted nearly half of Georgia's colonial population. Although the Revolution fostered the growth of an antislavery movement in the northern states, white Georgia landowners fiercely maintained their commitment to slavery even as the war disrupted the plantation economy. In subsequent decades slavery would play an ever-increasing role in Georgia's shifting plantation economy. - New Georgia Encyclopedia
By the 1790s entrepreneurs were perfecting new mechanized cotton gins, the most famous of which was invented by Eli Whitney on a Savannah River plantation owned by Catharine Greene in 1793.
This technological advance
presented Georgia planters
with a staple crop
that could be grown over
much of the state.
Although slavery played a dominant economic and political role in Georgia, most white Georgians did not own slaves. In 1860 less than one-third of Georgia's adult white male population of 132,317 were slaveholders.
Slaveholders controlled not only the best land and the vast majority of personal property in the state but also the state political system. In 1850 and 1860 more than two-thirds of all state legislators were slaveholders. More striking, almost a third of the state legislators were planters.
Hence, even without the cooperation of non-slaveholding white male voters, Georgia slaveholders could dictate the state's political path.
- New Georgia Encyclopedia
In 1819, the United States was divided equally with 11 free states and 11 slave states. People living in the Missouri Territory applied for statehood as a slave state, but Congress did not approve because there would be an imbalance of power. Think back to the Senate where 2 senators represent each states.
If Missouri was allowed to be a slave
state then there would be 24 US senators
coming from slave states and 22 from
non-slave states. Slave states would
have an advantage when trying to pass
or keep from passing certain laws.
To keep a balance in the US Congress, a compromise was made to allow Maine to be admitted to the Union as a free state while Missouri was added to the United States as a slave state. Also part of the compromise was that slavery would be outlawed north of the 36th degree line of latitude.
Compromise of 1850 to Avert Civil War
Northerners who helped slaves escape would be jailed and fined. The law enraged Northerners because it made them feel a part of the slave system. Persons involved with the Underground Railroad worked to subvert the law. Some actively opposed slavery and they were called abolitionists, working to abolish or end slavery.FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
Georgians met at the state capital in Milledgeville to discuss the Compromise of 1850. Representative Alexander Stephens supported the Compromise of 1850 because he did not want Georgia to secede from the Union. He felt Georgia and the southern states had too much too lose if they seceded and lost a Civil War. Georgia helped prevent war and secession.
northerners who disagreed with slavery. They were now a part of the slavery issue like it or not.
The other part of the 1850 Compromise was that slave trading became illegal in Washington D.C.COMPROMISE OF 1850
In 1854, Stephen Douglas introduced a
bill to help solve the problem of slavery in the new Nebraska territory. He proposed that Nebraska be divided into two territories — Kansas and Nebraska. The settlers of the new territories would decide whether they would be slave or free.
A broadside from 1854 advertises a mass meeting of anti-slavery settlers to discuss the impact of Kansas-Nebraska Act.
and views as
sectionalism grows and the agruments over
free or slave states increases. These compromises lead to a shift in the power.
Dred Scott was a slave from the slave state of Missouri who traveled with his master Dr. John Emerson to the free state of Illinois. Dred Scott eventually tried to sue for his freedom since he believed that he could not be a slave in a free state. The Supreme Court did not rule in his favor. Instead, the Supreme Court decided that Dred Scott could not sue in court because slaves were not citizens, therefore, he had no rights. The Court also allowed slaves to be taken to free states b/c they were property of their masters.
Many Northerners were outraged as abolitionist sentiments grew stronger.
For decades the arguments about slavery have been growing louder between people who live in the Northern states and people who live in the Southern states. Northerners believe slavery should be abolished for moral reasons. Southerners feel the end of slavery will destroy their region’s rural economy. Many in the South think the election of Northerner Abraham Lincoln to be president of the United States will be a serious blow to their way of life.
In the mid-1850s, people who opposed slavery were looking for a new voice and formed the Republican Party. Their main goal was to keep slavery out of the western territories, not to end slavery in the South.
Lincoln’s victory in the 1860 presidential election caused southern states to hold conventions on whether or not they should secede from the Union in order to protect the legalization of slavery in their states.
South Carolina became the 1st state to secede from the Union, while Georgia became the 5th state to secede.
Alexander Stephens was a U.S. Representative from Georgia who was PRO- slavery, but he was against Secession. When Georgia held a convention to decide on secession Alexander Stephens argued against it by saying the South should remain loyal to the Union. He believed that if the South seceded then a
Civil War would break out and if the South lost then they would lose their states’ rights, especially the right to keep slavery legal.
Despite Alexander Stephens and his words of caution, Georgia decided to secede anyway. Those states in the south that seceded created the Confederate States of America, a separate country. Alexander Stephens was persuaded to become the vice-president of the C.S.A., most likely to appeal to
southerners that were just
like him – wanted to keep
slavery, but really didn’t
want to leave the union.
This would help keep the
southern states united.
After Lincoln took the oath of office in 1861, he announced that no state can lawfully leave the Union. He declared, however, there would be no war unless the South started it.
SS8H6bState the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
Conflict and Change
Individuals and Groups
Rule of Law
What role did the following events
play in the Civil War?
Antietam - Emancipation Proclamation
Gettysburg - Chickamauga
Union blockade - Sherman’s Atlanta campaign
Sherman’s March - Andersonville
1. Confederates- General Robert E. Lee
2. Federals (Union)- General George McClellan
1. McClellan and his troops stopped the Confederate army from advancing on Washington, D.C.
2. One of the bloodiest single days in the war
3. Confederate casualties were about 13,700
4. Union casualties were about 12,400
5. Although McClellan protected the capital from Confederate forces, he allowed Lee’s army to escape to Virginia
WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF WAR?
“This photograph shows Abraham Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam. The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in American History. More Americans lost their lives in one day of fighting than in all previous wars combined. To the left of Mr. Lincoln is Allan Pinkerton, later famous for creating the Pinkerton detective agency. To the right is Major General John A. McClernand.”
1. Confederates- General Robert E. Lee
2. Federals (Union)- General George Meade
1. The battle of Gettysburg began as a “fight over shoes” (Southerners had heard that there was a cache of shoes at Gettysburg).
2. Battle was a result of Lee’s plan to invade the north for a second time.
1. Lee planned to attack the Union center at Cemetery Ridge on the third day of the battle. The General to lead the attack was the Virginian George Pickett.
2. Prior to Pickett’s charge the Confederates began the largest artillery barrage of the war.
3. Pickett’s charge was a miserable failure.
4. Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the American Civil War.
5. Gettysburg was by far the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War.
6. Lee was forced to retreat back into Virginia. His ambulance train was over seventeen miles long.
1. Confederates- 3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing
2. Union- 3,155 killed, 14, 529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing
Confederate soldiers: southwestern edge of the Rosewoods – Gettysburg Pennsylvania
1. Confederates- General Braxton Bragg, General James Longstreet
2. Federals (Union)- General William Rosecrans, General George Thomas
1. Chickamauga is the first major battle in the State of Georgia.
2. Chickamauga means “The River of Death” in Cherokee.
3. Control of the railroad in Chattanooga was at stake
4. Bloodiest battle fought in Georgia
5. Caused Union forces to retreat back to Chattanooga and they ended up capturing Chattanooga
1. Confederates (Rebels)- 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1,468 captured/missing
2. Federals (Union)- 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing
If I could take Atlanta…