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concept conflict and change individuals and groups rule of law

SS8H6aExplain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.


Conflict and Change

Individuals and Groups

Rule of Law

causes of the civil war


How did the following issues and events cause the Civil War?

slavery - states’ rights

Nullification - Missouri Compromise

Compromise of 1850 - Kansas/Nebraska Act

Dred Scott case - Election of 1860

Debate over secession - Alexander Stephens


Western Expansion

  • After President Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States doubled in size. This purchase gave the United States control of the vast lands west of the Mississippi.
  • As Americans pushed west, the issue of slavery came to the forefront.
  • Would the new territories of the United States be slave or free?


Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and the resulting cotton boom led the South to focus on agriculture while the North focused on industrial growth.

  • North
  • Based on Industry & Manufacturing
  • Other economic activities:
  • - Mining
  • - Banking
  • - Retail
  • - Railroad
  • - Steel & Iron
  • South
  • Based on farming & the slave trade
  • Other economic activities:

- Mills (Factories that refine agricultural products)


People based their decisions,opinions, and views on what was good for only their part of the country.

Who will control the new territory out west?


The United States Congress passed the tariff of 1828 in order to increase the price of foreign goods so that the same goods manufactured in the north would be cheaper in price.

This helped northern businesses, but people in the south were having to pay more for a product that was their second choice since their first choice (foreign product) is now more expensive because of the tariff (tax) added to the cost.

The North favored tariffs to persuade people to buy products made in their own country.

By placing protective tariffs on imports, Northern business men prospered.

Southerners felt this unconstitutional and that they should not have to pay the tariff.

South Carolina even threatened to leave the union if the tariffs were not repealed.


The tariff of 1828 led to discussions in the South about nullification.

Nullification is the argument that a state has the right not to follow a federal law.

The state of South Carolina wanted to ignore the tariff.

By 1832, Congress slightly modified the Tariff of 1828 to appease the southern states.

states rights

This phrase refers to individual states being sovereign (or having the right to govern itself). According to the 10th amendment of the constitution…

“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

Basically, states wanted to follow their own laws, and they did not want the federal government (United States) to overrule state laws.

states rights1

The main issue over states’ rights involved the institution of slavery. Southern states feared that Congress would pass laws eventually outlawing the practice of slavery, which would hurt the southern

agricultural economic way of

life involving the growing of

cotton on large plantations.


When the Georgia Trustees first envisioned their colonial experiment in the early 1730s, they sought to avoid the slave-based plantation economy that had developed in other colonies in the American South. The allure of profits from slavery, however, proved to be too powerful for white Georgia settlers to resist. By the era of the American Revolution (1775-83), African slaves constituted nearly half of Georgia's colonial population. Although the Revolution fostered the growth of an antislavery movement in the northern states, white Georgia landowners fiercely maintained their commitment to slavery even as the war disrupted the plantation economy. In subsequent decades slavery would play an ever-increasing role in Georgia's shifting plantation economy. - New Georgia Encyclopedia


By the 1790s entrepreneurs were perfecting new mechanized cotton gins, the most famous of which was invented by Eli Whitney on a Savannah River plantation owned by Catharine Greene in 1793.

This technological advance

presented Georgia planters

with a staple crop

that could be grown over

much of the state.


Although slavery played a dominant economic and political role in Georgia, most white Georgians did not own slaves. In 1860 less than one-third of Georgia's adult white male population of 132,317 were slaveholders.

Slaveholders controlled not only the best land and the vast majority of personal property in the state but also the state political system. In 1850 and 1860 more than two-thirds of all state legislators were slaveholders. More striking, almost a third of the state legislators were planters.

Hence, even without the cooperation of non-slaveholding white male voters, Georgia slaveholders could dictate the state's political path.

- New Georgia Encyclopedia

missouri compromise

In 1819, the United States was divided equally with 11 free states and 11 slave states. People living in the Missouri Territory applied for statehood as a slave state, but Congress did not approve because there would be an imbalance of power. Think back to the Senate where 2 senators represent each states.

If Missouri was allowed to be a slave

state then there would be 24 US senators

coming from slave states and 22 from

non-slave states. Slave states would

have an advantage when trying to pass

or keep from passing certain laws.

missouri compromise1

To keep a balance in the US Congress, a compromise was made to allow Maine to be admitted to the Union as a free state while Missouri was added to the United States as a slave state. Also part of the compromise was that slavery would be outlawed north of the 36th degree line of latitude.

compromise of 1850
  • In 1850, California applied for admission as a free state. Once again, the balance of power in the Senate was threatened. The South did not want to give the North a majority in the Senate.
  • The Compromise of 1850 had four parts: 1) California entered as a free state. 2) The rest of the Mexican cession was divided into New Mexico and Utah. In each state, voters would decide the issue of slavery. 3) Slave trade was ended in Washington D.C. 4) A strict new fugitive-slave law was passed.

Henry Clay Arguing in the Us Senate for the

Compromise of 1850 to Avert Civil War

fugitive slave act
In the South, The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was seen as a victory. It required that all citizens were obligated to return runaway slaves.

Northerners who helped slaves escape would be jailed and fined. The law enraged Northerners because it made them feel a part of the slave system. Persons involved with the Underground Railroad worked to subvert the law. Some actively opposed slavery and they were called abolitionists, working to abolish or end slavery.

georgia platform

Georgians met at the state capital in Milledgeville to discuss the Compromise of 1850. Representative Alexander Stephens supported the Compromise of 1850 because he did not want Georgia to secede from the Union. He felt Georgia and the southern states had too much too lose if they seceded and lost a Civil War. Georgia helped prevent war and secession.

compromise of 18501
As part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act. This law said that slaves could not become free once they entered into free states. Instead, slaves were to be returned to the slave states and anyone helping a slave to freedom faced fines and imprisonment.

This angered

northerners who disagreed with slavery. They were now a part of the slavery issue like it or not.

The other part of the 1850 Compromise was that slave trading became illegal in Washington D.C.

kansas nebraska act

In 1854, Stephen Douglas introduced a

bill to help solve the problem of slavery in the new Nebraska territory. He proposed that Nebraska be divided into two territories — Kansas and Nebraska. The settlers of the new territories would decide whether they would be slave or free.

Popular Sovereignty


A broadside from 1854 advertises a mass meeting of anti-slavery settlers to discuss the impact of Kansas-Nebraska Act.


Notice the changes in boundries

and views as

sectionalism grows and the agruments over

free or slave states increases. These compromises lead to a shift in the power.

dred scot court case

Dred Scott was a slave from the slave state of Missouri who traveled with his master Dr. John Emerson to the free state of Illinois. Dred Scott eventually tried to sue for his freedom since he believed that he could not be a slave in a free state. The Supreme Court did not rule in his favor. Instead, the Supreme Court decided that Dred Scott could not sue in court because slaves were not citizens, therefore, he had no rights. The Court also allowed slaves to be taken to free states b/c they were property of their masters.

the ruling was a victory for southern slave owners

The ruling was a victory for southern slave owners.

Many Northerners were outraged as abolitionist sentiments grew stronger.

election of 1860

For decades the arguments about slavery have been growing louder between people who live in the Northern states and people who live in the Southern states. Northerners believe slavery should be abolished for moral reasons. Southerners feel the end of slavery will destroy their region’s rural economy. Many in the South think the election of Northerner Abraham Lincoln to be president of the United States will be a serious blow to their way of life.


In the mid-1850s, people who opposed slavery were looking for a new voice and formed the Republican Party. Their main goal was to keep slavery out of the western territories, not to end slavery in the South.

  • In the presidential election of 1860, the Republicans ran Abraham Lincoln from Illinois. Lincoln was known to oppose slavery on the basis of its being morally wrong.
  • However, Lincoln was not willing to end slavery at the risk of tearing the Union apart. The Democratic Party had spilt, with Northern Democrats choosing Stephen Douglas and Southern Democrats choosing Vice-President John Breckinridge. A pro-Union party chose John Bell of Tennessee.
  • Because of the four candidates, Lincoln won the election, but received no votes in the South and was not even on the ballot.
debate over secession

Lincoln’s victory in the 1860 presidential election caused southern states to hold conventions on whether or not they should secede from the Union in order to protect the legalization of slavery in their states.

South Carolina became the 1st state to secede from the Union, while Georgia became the 5th state to secede.

jan feb 1861 role of alexander stephens

Alexander Stephens was a U.S. Representative from Georgia who was PRO- slavery, but he was against Secession. When Georgia held a convention to decide on secession Alexander Stephens argued against it by saying the South should remain loyal to the Union. He believed that if the South seceded then a

Civil War would break out and if the South lost then they would lose their states’ rights, especially the right to keep slavery legal.

jan feb 1861 role of alexander stephens1

Despite Alexander Stephens and his words of caution, Georgia decided to secede anyway. Those states in the south that seceded created the Confederate States of America, a separate country. Alexander Stephens was persuaded to become the vice-president of the C.S.A., most likely to appeal to

southerners that were just

like him – wanted to keep

slavery, but really didn’t

want to leave the union.

This would help keep the

southern states united.

april 1861
APRIL 1861

After Lincoln took the oath of office in 1861, he announced that no state can lawfully leave the Union. He declared, however, there would be no war unless the South started it.

  • The South started to take possession of all Federal buildings — forts and post offices. The South took control of the three forts in Florida and was ready to take control of Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
  • In April 1861, the Confederates asked for the fort’s surrender. Major Robert Anderson of the Union refused to surrender. The Confederate troops proceeded to shell Fort Sumter. Anderson ran out of ammunition and was forced to surrender. The war had begun.
Despite all attempts at compromise, the Civil War breaks out with the first shots fired at Fort Sumter April, 1861.
concept conflict and change individuals and groups rule of law1

SS8H6bState the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.


Conflict and Change

Individuals and Groups

Rule of Law

the civil war


What role did the following events

play in the Civil War?

Antietam - Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg - Chickamauga

Union blockade - Sherman’s Atlanta campaign

Sherman’s March - Andersonville

antietam sharpsburg
Antietam (Sharpsburg)
  • Location- Sharpsburg, Maryland
  • Dates- September 17, 1862
  • Commanders

1. Confederates- General Robert E. Lee

2. Federals (Union)- General George McClellan

  • Notable Facts

1. McClellan and his troops stopped the Confederate army from advancing on Washington, D.C.

2. One of the bloodiest single days in the war

3. Confederate casualties were about 13,700

4. Union casualties were about 12,400

5. Although McClellan protected the capital from Confederate forces, he allowed Lee’s army to escape to Virginia







“This photograph shows Abraham Lincoln on the Battlefield of Antietam. The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in American History. More Americans lost their lives in one day of fighting than in all previous wars combined. To the left of Mr. Lincoln is Allan Pinkerton, later famous for creating the Pinkerton detective agency. To the right is Major General John A. McClernand.”

battle of gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
  • Location- Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  • Dates- July 1-3, 1863
  • Overall Commanders

1. Confederates- General Robert E. Lee

2. Federals (Union)- General George Meade

  • Notable Facts

1. The battle of Gettysburg began as a “fight over shoes” (Southerners had heard that there was a cache of shoes at Gettysburg).

2. Battle was a result of Lee’s plan to invade the north for a second time.

gettysburg continued
Gettysburg Continued

1. Lee planned to attack the Union center at Cemetery Ridge on the third day of the battle. The General to lead the attack was the Virginian George Pickett.

2. Prior to Pickett’s charge the Confederates began the largest artillery barrage of the war.

3. Pickett’s charge was a miserable failure.

4. Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the American Civil War.

5. Gettysburg was by far the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War.

6. Lee was forced to retreat back into Virginia. His ambulance train was over seventeen miles long.

gettysburg outcome
Gettysburg Outcome
  • Losses

1. Confederates- 3,500 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,500 captured/missing

2. Union- 3,155 killed, 14, 529 wounded, 5,365 captured/missing

  • Outcome- Major Union Victory
battle of chickamauga
Battle of Chickamauga
  • Location – Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia
  • Dates – September 18-20, 1863
  • Commanders

1. Confederates- General Braxton Bragg, General James Longstreet

2. Federals (Union)- General William Rosecrans, General George Thomas

  • Notable Facts

1. Chickamauga is the first major battle in the State of Georgia.

2. Chickamauga means “The River of Death” in Cherokee.

3. Control of the railroad in Chattanooga was at stake

4. Bloodiest battle fought in Georgia

5. Caused Union forces to retreat back to Chattanooga and they ended up capturing Chattanooga

chickamauga continued
Chickamauga Continued
  • Losses

1. Confederates (Rebels)- 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1,468 captured/missing

2. Federals (Union)- 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing

  • Outcome- Confederate Victory
union blockade of georgia
Union Blockade of Georgia
  • Many of Georgia’s ports were blocked throughout the war – including Darien and Brunswick
  • Strong Confederate forts protected some cities from falling under the blockade
  • Fort Pulaski protected Savannah, but in April of 1862, the Confederate forces surrendered
union blockade of georgia1
Union Blockade of Georgia
  • As a result, the Union troops used Fort Pulaski to block ships from entering Savannah
  • The blockade made it difficult for farmers and merchants to sell their wares
  • Also made it hard for Confederate army to receive supplies from overseas allies
andersonville prison
Andersonville Prison
  • February 1864, the Confederates opened a prison camp to house Union soldiers
  • Andersonville held the largest amount of prisoners than any other camp at the time
  • Tens of thousands of Union soldiers were imprisoned there
  • Conditions were awful – unhealthy sanitation conditions, malnutrition, and overcrowding
andersonville prison1
Andersonville Prison
  • 13,000 out of 45,000 prisoners died at Andersonville
  • Today it is a memorial for all American prisoners of war






If I could take Atlanta…

sherman s atlanta campaign
Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign
  • Sherman and 100,000 men marched from Chattanooga to Atlanta
  • Sherman clashed with General Johnston and the Confederates outside of Atlanta (60,000 men)
  • Because of shortages of ammunition and men, Johnston retreated southward
  • President Davis (CSA) fired Johnston and replaced him with General Hood
  • Hood lost the battle of Atlanta
sherman s atlanta campaign1
Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign
  • When General Sherman and the Union Army arrived in Atlanta, he gave the people of Atlanta five days to leave the city
  • Five days later, Sherman had his troops burn Atlanta to the ground on November 15, 1864
sherman s march to the sea
Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • After burning Atlanta, Sherman and his troops (60,000 by this point) marched through Georgia to Savannah
  • The plan was for the army to feed itself with what it found
  • The path was 60 miles wide and three hundred miles long
  • They took everything they could use and destroyed what they could not use (total war)
sherman s march to the sea1
Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • Animals were slaughtered but not eaten
  • Stored crops were emptied onto the ground
  • Houses were looted and burned
  • Railroads were destroyed
  • The move took 2 months
  • This march generated bad feelings between the North and South even years after the war was over