Lecture 1: What is the Nation. What were the contours and conditions of German unification?. End of the July Monarchy. Paris Barricades of February 1848. H. Vernet, Barricade in the Rue Soufflot, Paris1848. Republican Uprising in Baden, 1848.
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What were the contours and conditions of German unification?
Paris Barricades of February 1848
H. Vernet, Barricade in the Rue Soufflot, Paris1848
1850: Olmütz Agreement resurrects a conservative German Confederation and the balancing act between Austria & Prussia
“Injustice has lost all sense of shame.”
“Man cannot create or control the tide of time, he can only move in the same direction and try to direct it.”
The leading alternatives:
Greater Germany / Lesser Germany
Grossdeutschland / Kleindeutschland
January 18, 1871: The German Empire is founded.
Lesser-Germany under Prussian domination (approx. 3/5 of the land area and 3/5 of the population).
Declaration of the German Empire
Centralised government with specific
Responsibilities for the Reich as a whole
(foreign policy, defence, customs etc.)
Regional government with responsibilities
For individual states (education, direct
Taxation, health, local justice etc.)