Imperialism and Nation-State Formation. The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power. Imperialism.
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The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power.
Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul.
Soc. & Eco.Opportunities
Another point of view?
Who is missing from this picture???
“We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod.
We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.”
Which one do you think is more accurate?
Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Dr. David Livingstone
Sir Richard Burton
The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1
Clearing tropical forests ate away at Leopold’s profit margins so Congolese farming villages such as this one were leveled to make way for rubber tree plantations
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
“The Colossus of Rhodes”
Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo dream where Britain would dominate the continent.
Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but region controlled by Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers)
Kruger Telegram (1902): Kaiser Wilhelm II, dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance
Anger swept through Britain aimed at Germany.
Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.
British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
“I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890)
What do you think happened?
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires.
The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world.
The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia.
Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world
The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories
The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan
Arrival of Matthew Perry and his kurofune or "Black Ships" in Japan in 1854
Fashoda Incident (1898): France & Britain nearly went to war over Sudan; France backed down in the face of the Dreyfus Affair
“Whatever happens, we have gotthe Maxim gun, and they have not.”
When Africans rebelled, Europeans killed thousands of Yao, Zulu, Asante, Shona, Herero, and Maji-Maji people.
Ethiopia was the only exception…
Many Africans gave up traditional agriculture to work for European companies. Some worked on rubber plantations or in copper mines. Others built railroads to bring these natural resources to ports, where they could be shipped to Europe and used in factories.
“Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God”
When Italy invaded again in 1935, Haile Selassie I made a famous speech to the League of Nations.
Bob Marley used his speech as lyrics to a song, “War”
“That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned:
“And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed…
Local warfare reduced
Hospitals led to increased lifespan
Schools led to increased literacy
Loss of land and independence
Men forced to work in European owned mines and on European owned farms
Contempt for traditional culture and admiration of European culture = identity problems
Dividing up of Africa = artificial boundaries divided kinship groups and united rivalsImpact of Imperialism in Africa
New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism
Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Use your notes, and the lyrics to Bob Marley’s “War”to explain how European imperialism affected Africans and their desire for Nationalism.