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Immigration and English as a Second Language Education. Alex Draughan, Brooke Hayworth, Laura Krueger. Education in America. Rights of the common citizen (Jefferson) American nationalism (Hamilton)

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Immigration and english as a second language education l.jpg

Immigration and English as a Second Language Education

Alex Draughan, Brooke Hayworth, Laura Krueger


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Education in America

Rights of the common citizen (Jefferson)

American nationalism (Hamilton)

Early 1900s Institutionalization of the U.S. Public School System: federal and state regulations control the training and certification of teachers


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Summary of Wave 1 Ideals

The 1800s through early 1900s

-Ellis Island years, very difficult and challenging years.

-This wave included immigrants, largely men, from mostly eastern and southern Europe.

These were the years in which immigrants were slowly moving from farming to better economic opportunities

Policy towards Immigrating Peoples:

-The US had very little or no policy during these years.


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MilestonesFirst Wave

New Years Day 1892

Ms. Annie Moore, an Irish teenager becomes the first to enter Ellis Island.

Many immigrants then moved into Industrialized areas in the east and midwest regions.

1900s-Steam ships created easier travel situations by decreasing the trip from months to weeks and days, and decreasing the mortality rate.


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Policy and Response

Literacy Test Act-1917-

Only immigrants who could read in their first language(L1) or English were allowed admission into the US.

Many Acts followed that limited

the number of immigrating people to the United States.


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Educational Approaches

  • Immersion schools were created almost as soon as the immigrants arrived.


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Ethnic Stereotypes

  • Often accepted more readily were the immigrants from western Europe.

  • Jewish and Northern European immigrants did well in school.

  • Eastern European Jewish children excelled during this period, but Italian and Slavic children performed poorly in school.


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“Social Darwinism, with [the] philosophy of the “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Gonzalez, Yawkey, Minaya-Rowe. English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning: Pre-K-12 Classroom Applicaions for Students’ Academic Achievement and Development. Pearson, 2006: Boston.

The Hardship of the

Ellis Island Years


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Assimilation/Cultural Adaptation

Biculturalism

Transculturalism

Americanization

Single-mindedness

Melting pot

Pluralism


1900 1959 assimilation and cultural adaptation l.jpg
(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Assimilation and Cultural Adaptation

“[M]ost U.S. institutions had as a major goal to Americanize immigrants, and the younger the better.”

Gonzalez, Yawkey, Minaya-Rowe. English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning: Pre-K-12 Classroom Applicaions for Students’ Academic Achievement and Development. Pearson, 2006: Boston.


1900 1959 assimilation and cultural adaptation11 l.jpg
(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Assimilation and Cultural Adaptation

  • Home/isolation vs. mainstream

    • Mothers, Fathers, children

    • Cognitive gaps

    • Generational gaps

  • Ideology conflicts:

    • Europe: fatalism, lack of social mobility

    • America: Liberty, democracy


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Milestones

  • Industrial Revolution:

    • American clothing

    • Tradesman jobs vs. machinery

  • Great Depression:

    • Return to Europe

  • Progressive Movement

  • Social Justice

  • African American migration:

    • From South to large Northern cities


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Policy and Response

  • 1912 YMCA: adaptation, “single-mindedness,” Christian nation “melting pot,” middle class standards, English language classes and citizenship

  • 1914 Committee for Immigrants in America (Miss Frances Kellor): business efficiency to mainstream institutions (schooling, factories, businesses)


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Policy and Response

  • Immigration legislation

    • 1917 Literacy Test Act: L1 literacy required

    • 1920 Cultural Pluralism (John Dewey): opposed Americanization and Assimilation movements; exposure to democracy instills cultural values and nationalism and national identification


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Policy and Response

  • 1921 Emergency Quota Act: 3% of people of given nationality living in U.S. during year 1910

  • 1924 National Origins Act: favors northern Europeans and restricted immigration

  • 1954 McCarran-Walter Act: increased quota above former 2%, gave quotas to Asian countries previous excluded


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Education (1900-1959): Mainstream Culture vs. Diversity “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

“U.S. public schools of the early 1900s did not respond to the cultural diversity differences. Only some ethnic cultural groups, whose cultural background and values matched the mainstream American culture, could succeed academically and showed higher degrees of social adaptation and mobility.”

Gonzalez, Yawkey, Minaya-Rowe. English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning: Pre-K-12 Classroom Applicaions for Students’ Academic Achievement and Development. Pearson, 2006: Boston.


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(1900-1959) “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) Ethnic stereotypes

  • Established immigrants create their own stereotypes and prejudices against new waves of immigrants

  • Immigrants carried prejudices over from Europe

    • Polish population

      • High status: English nationals “ all cultured, refined, and educated”

      • Low status: Greeks, Syrians, Italians and ethnic groups (such as Galicians)


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Age of Normalcy “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

1915-1939

Isolationism

Neutrality

1920’s-limitations of immigration


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FDR: “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

Great Depression

Fair Employment Practices Committee:

Prevent discrimination by defense industries against anyone because of “race, color, creed, or national origin”

3 R’s:

Relief

Recovery

Reform

Truman:

Committee on Civil Rights: discrimination on the basis of race/religion prevents achievement of American ideal of democracy


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Brown v. Board of Education “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • 1954

  • “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”


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Civil Rights Era “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • 1960’s-1980’s

  • Civil Rights movement

  • Coleman Report: data-based support for desegregation to improve student performance

  • Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act


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Segregation in Public Schools “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.) 1960’s to present

  • Busing

  • Desegregation is still not a reality

  • Introduction of magnet schools in 1970’s


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Equal Educational Opportunity for the Poor “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Studies that demonstrate the negative effect of poverty on academic achievement:

    • James Conant

    • Michael Harrington


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LBJ “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • War on Poverty with the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

  • Head Start which focuses on school readiness


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Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Targeted African American and ESL groups

  • Funding

  • Nutrition programs, social and medical services, innovations in teaching practices, and “cultural and social enrichment” programs


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Bilingual Education Act of 1968 “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Lau v. Nichols (Chinese Americans in San Francisco)

  • Support of bilingual education for ESL learners

  • What is the school’s role? (Assimilation/multicultural appreciation)


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No Child Left Behind 2001 “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Title III

  • Mandate: ELLs learn academic English to achieve at grade level in all content areas and assessments must be aligned with state standards

  • 5 domains: acquisition in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and comprehension


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New Immigrants: 1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • Asians: integration into culture and high academic achievement

  • Hispanics: different backgrounds that may not value education


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New Immigrants: 1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

  • “It takes the effort of mentors, acting as mediators between the mainstream and minority cultural value systems, for minority parents to become aware of the need for cultural adaptation. Parents’ awareness of cultural values endorsed by the mainstream school culture provides a genuine opportunity for their children to become achievers, access higher education, and gain social and economic mobility.”

    Gonzalez, Yawkey, Minaya-Rowe. English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning: Pre-K-12 Classroom Applicaions for Students’ Academic Achievement and Development. Pearson, 2006: Boston.


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Conclusion “survival of the fittest” prevailed during the early 1900s, with 10 percent of immigrants entering through Ellis Island marked with some sign of physical or mental problem (such as lameness, trachoma, pregnancy, etc.)

“[T]he ultimate realization of the ‘American dream’ is for educators to realize that most of us are part of this dream, the creation of a country of immigrants and for immigrants.”

Gonzalez, Yawkey, Minaya-Rowe. English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Teaching and Learning: Pre-K-12 Classroom Applicaions for Students’ Academic Achievement and Development. Pearson, 2006: Boston.


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