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  1. English as a Second Language

  2. ESL Objectives • Training Objectives • ELL Background and Statistics (IU1) • Culture and Acculturation • Instructional Methods • Review of Procedures • Evaluation

  3. Training Objectives • 1. To become more familiar with needs of English Language Learners • 2. To review procedures for supporting English Language Learners

  4. ESL Background Information • Federal Background • Civil Right Act of 1964, Title VI • Department of Health, Education and Welfare (D/HEW), May 25, 1970 Memorandum • US Supreme Court, Lau v Nichols, 1974 • Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 • Serna v Portales 1974 • Rios v Reed 1974

  5. ESL Background Information • Federal/cases • Castaneda v Pickard 1981 • Plyler v Doe 1982 • Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA ‘97)

  6. ESL Background Information • State Background • School Code of 1949, Section 1511 and 1512 • Curriculum Regulations, Chapter 4, Section 4.26 ESOL • Memorandum from Thomas Carey, August 31, 1999 • BEC-Educating Students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and English Language Learners, July 1, 2001

  7. Languages (IU1 area) • 22 Chinese (18 Mandarian dialect) • 9 English • 8 Hindi • 7 Spanish • 4 Arabic • 4 Bengali • 3 Portuguese • 3 Russia

  8. Local Statistics Twelve (12) districts being served by IU1 Sixty-two (62) students Twelve (12) instructors Thirteen (13) countries Fourteen (14) languages represented Statistics • Spanish • Cantonese • Russian • Slovak • Korean • German •Taiwanese • Japanese •Thai • Vietnamese •German • Maradhi • Mandarin • Hindi

  9. Culture

  10. What is Culture? • Culture is a set of common beliefs and values that is shared by a group of people that binds them together into a society. All people are members of at least one culture. The norms of a culture define roles and provide a framework that makes people’s behavior predictable and understandable to one another.

  11. Culture Shapes • The way we think • The way we interact • The way we communicate • The way we transmit knowledge to the next generation

  12. Visible Culture Food Fiestas Famous People

  13. Deep Culture • Values, beliefs that influence the way people think, act, communicate • Unspoken rules • Unconscious rules

  14. Culture Affects… Culture affects the organization of learning, pedagogical practices, evaluation procedures, and rules of schools, as well as instructional activities and curriculum. Council of Anthropology and Education

  15. CultureGrams • 1305 North ResearchWay, Bldg. K Orem, Utah 84097-6200 USA • 1-800-528-6279 ; 801-705-4250 • Fax 801-705-4350 • www.culturegrams.com

  16. First Step in Cultural Awareness Understanding the values and rules for behavior of our own culture that are so ingrained that we feel they are the “normal” or “right” way of doing things

  17. Acculturation Acculturation is the process of adapting to a new culture. All people experience the acculturation process when they move from one culture to another.

  18. Variables Affecting Acculturation • The amount of time spent in the process • The quantity and quality of interaction • Ethnicity or nation of origin • Language proficiency

  19. Stage 1 Euphoria Excitement over the newness of being in the United States Stage 2 Culture Shock Engenders feelings of anger, hostility, and frustration Stage 3 Recovery Individual starts to feel comfortable in the new culture Stage 4 Acceptance Acceptance of new culture Stages of Acculturation

  20. In the acculturation process, the ELL must adapt to: • New language • Different cultures • Values/beliefs • Communication system • Non-verbal/body language • Conversational style Adapted from “Instructional Support for Students who are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse: A collection of Background Information and Training Materials,” April 1997

  21. Implications for ESL • Be conscious of your own nonverbal behavior with ELL • Avoid judging student’s behavior by your values • Recognize that the learning environment in America may differ from what the student is accustomed

  22. Instructional Methods

  23. Learning Style - Latino • Group/cooperative learning • Learning by doing • Sensitive to peers’ and teachers’ opinions • Remember faces and social words • Concrete representations to abstraction

  24. Learning Style - Asian • Values academic achievement • Responsible for himself/herself • Respects teacher authority • Quiet, sell organized, highly structured • Prefers cooperation to competitiveness • Prefers listening to speaking

  25. Learning Style - African American • Approximates space and numbers • Focus on people rather than things • Active learning/kinesthetic • High degree of emotional interaction • Responds to whole

  26. Multiple Intelligences • Visual/Spatial • Mathematical/Logical • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Kinesthetic • Linguistic • Naturalist • Musical

  27. Other Things to Try • Learn a new culture and teach it to the whole school • Make him/her feel comfortable • Celebrate diversity day • Buddy club • Pen pal • Tape (audio and video) recorder • Talk, reading and writing time

  28. Environmental Adaptations • Appropriate seating • Take short breaks • Appropriate light • Reduced noise level • Flexible scheduling

  29. Adapting with Assistive Devices • Books and dictionary • Games and art supplies • Visual aids • Calculator, tape recorder, software • Computer

  30. Adapting to Classroom Instruction • Multi-sensory approach • Write key points • Repeat information many times • Provide study guide • Allow group work • Allow extra time to finish • A variety of assessments

  31. Adapting to Read • Provide stories on tape • Allow to work with a peer • Ask parents to encourage reading • Assign time for reading • Enrich vocabulary • Allow a read-aloud

  32. Adapting to Write • Reduce the length and complexity • Limit number of steps • Pair students • Do not penalize for spelling, punctuation, and grammar • Teach from the mistakes • Allow first draft in native language

  33. Adapting to Homework • Communicate with parents • Provide clear and concise directions • Assess the amount of homework • Coordinate homework with other teachers • Do not expect parents to spend lots of money on the projects

  34. Adapting Tests and Grades • Simplify the terminology • Allow student to retake the test • Use multiple ways of assessment • Use a rubric • Allow them to work in group or pair • Allow extra time to take the test

  35. Content Area Support • Contextual Support • Tap prior knowledge • Use visuals and graphics • Use manipulatives • Provide labels

  36. Content Area • Use Visuals and Graphics • Pictures • Graphic organizers • Teach visualization strategies • Allow pictorial responses

  37. Content Area • Manipulatives • Use real artifacts • Use maps, globe, models, etc. • Creat games • Use poster projects • Publish books • Do experiments • Art projects

  38. Content Area • Model by the Teacher • Demonstrate • Simulate • Activate • Write key points • Provide examples

  39. Content Area • Format • Reduce page clutter • Use text boxes • Divide into sections • Use simple words

  40. Content Area • Language • Use short phrases • Reduce sentence length • Use present tense • Avoid double negatives • Void wordiness • Provide word bank

  41. Content Area • Cooperative Learning • Role Play • Projects, research, internet search • Paired reading • Think aloud • Problem solve • Discussion group

  42. Three Principles for Helping ELL’s in Content Classrooms • Increase Comprehensibility • Increase Interaction • Increase Thinking Skills

  43. Increasing Comprehensibility • Use visuals to facilitate learning in the classroom • Build prior knowledge of students • Pre-teaching vocabulary • Use variety of questioning techniques • Use interactive, authentic classroom tasks

  44. Increasing Interaction • Cooperative Learning • Increases language opportunities • Improves the quality of student conversation • Provides more opportunities to use specific vocabulary of lesson • Helps individualize instruction • Promotes a positive social climate • Motivates learners

  45. Increasing Thinking Skills • Higher Level Thinking Skills • Questions for beginnings • Yes/No • Either/Or • Who, What, Where, When • Move towards Analysis, synthesis, problem solving • Allow ample time for learner response • Expand of student response to model correct grammar and punctuation

  46. Supporting ELL’s in Your Classroom • Scaffolding • Providing contextual supports for meaning • Reducing language demand • Flexible time limits

  47. How? • Simplifying the language • Providing choices • Visuals and graphics • Manipulatives • Cooperative learning • Simplifying the format • Modeling by teacher

  48. Enrollment in School Identification as Potential ELL Assessment Determines Need for ELL Services Provision of Appropriate ELL Services Transition from ELL Services Monitoring Ability to Participate Meaningfully Progression of students through an ELL Program Chart credit: http://www.ed.gov/OCR/ELL

  49. New ELL Student Enrollment • Two documents Parent/Guardian must supply to enroll: • Immunization records • Proof of residency

  50. New Student Enrollment Packet • Accommodations for ELL and Family • Forms • Home Language Survey • Emergency Forms • Immunization Forms • School Calendar • Before and After-school Care • Bus Information • Support for ELL (someone to ride with ELL?)