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Phylum Arthropoda. The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions and insects make up this phylum Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies Exoskeletons made of chitin Molt; have heads with many sensory organs. Bilateral

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phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
  • The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions and insects make up this phylum
  • Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies
  • Exoskeletons made of chitin
  • Molt; have heads with many sensory organs.
  • Bilateral
  • Simple and complex eyes that detect only light intensity and form images
  • Antennae that smell chemical substances in the environment
phylum arthropods cont
Phylum Arthropods (cont.)
  • Sexual Reproduction- where sperm is released inside the female’s body, not in water.
  • Larvae of many species develop into very different adults, a process called metamorphosis.
  • Can develop resistance to insecticides- demonstrates how quickly they adapt to a changing environment.
  • Short generations and many offspring increase the chance that random mutations will produce a few resistant individuals
slide3

Cephalothorax

Abdomen

Thorax

Antennae

(sensory

reception)

Head

Swimming

appendages

Walking legs

Figure 18.11A

Mouthparts (feeding)

Pincer (defense)

  • Arthropods are segmented animals with jointed appendages and an exoskeleton
slide4

Colorized SEM 900

A black widow spider (about

1 cm wide)

A dust mite (about 420

µm long)

A scorpion (about 8 cm long)

Figure 18.11B, C

  • Chelicerates
    • Include horseshoe crabs and arachnids, such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks
slide5

Figure 18.11D

  • Millipedes and Centipedes
    • Are identified by the number of jointed legs per body segment
slide6

Figure 18.11E

  • Crustaceans

- Are nearly all aquatic

- Include crabs, shrimps, and barnacles

slide7
Insects are the most diverse group of arthropods
  • Insects have a 3 -part body consisting of
      • Head, thorax, and abdomen
      • Three sets of legs
      • Wings (most, but not all insects)
    • Many insects undergo incomplete or complete metamorphosis
slide8
A. Order Orthoptera

Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, and locusts

B. Order Odonata

Dragonflies and damselflies

Abdomen

Head

Thorax

Antenna

Forewing

Eye

Figure 18.12B

Mouthparts

Hindwing

Figure 18.12A

slide9
C. Order Hemiptera

Bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, and water striders

D. Order Coleoptera

Beetles

Figure 18.12C

Figure 18.12D

slide10
E. Order Lepidoptera

Moths and butterflies

F. Order Diptera

Flies, fruit flies, houseflies, gnats, mosquitoes

Haltere

Figure 18.12F

Figure 18.12E

slide11

Figure 18.12G

  • G. Order Hymenoptera
      • Ants, bees, and wasps
phylum echinodermata
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Sea stars and sea urchins.
  • Reproduce sexually.
  • Sperm and eggs are released in water, where they join and fertilize
  • Movement by seawater into and out of a system of internal tubes.
slide13

Anus

Spines

Stomach

Tube feet

Canals

Figure 18.13A

The water vascular system - has suction cup–like tube feet used for respiration and locomotion

phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata
  • Vertebrates-fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  • Full development of organ systems
  • Mostly sexual reproduction

4 defining characteristics:

  • Stiff dorsal rod helps to organize the embryo's development.
  • The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) is tubular
  • Their sides have slits just behind the head. These pharyngeal slits (pharynx means “throat”) becomes gill slits of adult fish. In air-breathing chordates, they develop into various organs such as internal parts of the ears
  • They have a tail; in humans it’s the tailbone, or coccyx, which curls internally.
slide17

Skeletal

rods

Skull

Gill

slits

Mouth

Figure 18.16B

Figure 18.16A

  • Lampreys are vertebrates that lack hinged jaws and paired fins

Most vertebrates have hinged jaws which may have evolved from skeletal supports of the gill slits

slide18
CLASS: Fish

Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe-fins

slide19

Figure 18.17A

  • Chondrichthyans
      • Have a flexible skeleton made of car tilage
      • Include sharks and rays
slide20

Bony skeleton

Dorsal fin

Gills

Anal fin

Operculum

Swim bladder

Pectoral fin

Pelvic fin

Heart

Rainbow trout,

a ray-fin

Figure 18.17B

  • Ray-finned Fishes
      • A skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate
      • Operculi that move water over the gills
      • A buoyant swim bladder
slide21

Figure 18.17C

  • Lobe-fins
      • Have muscular fins suppor ted by bones
slide22

Bones

supporting

gills

Tetrapod

limb

skeleton

Figure 18.18A

  • CLASS: Amphibians
    • The first tetrapods—vertebrates with 2 pairs of limbs allowing movement on land
slide23

Figure 18.18B–D

  • Include frogs, toads, and salamanders
  • Most amphibian embryos and larvae must develop in water
slide24

Figure 18.19A, B

  • CLASS: Reptiles
  • Amniotes — tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg
  • Terrestrial adaptations include
      • Waterproof scales
      • A shelled, amniotic egg
      • Ectothermic
slide25

Figure 18.19C

Dinosaurs were the most diverse reptiles to inhabit land

  • Largest animals ever to inhabit land
  • May have been endothermic, producing their own body heat
slide26

Wing claw

(like dinosaur)

Teeth

(like dinosaur)

Long tail with

many vertebrae

(like dinosaur)

Feathers

Figure 18.20A

  • CLASS: Birds
  • Considered feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight
    • Birds thought to have evolved from small, two-legged dinosaurs called theropods
slide27

Figure 18.20B

Figure 18.20C

  • Flight ability is typical of birds but there are a few flightless species

Birds are reptiles that have

  • Wings, feathers, endothermic metabolism, and many other adaptations related to flight such as light bones
class mammals

Figure 18.21A

CLASS: Mammals

Amniotes that have hair, produce milk, and are endothermic

  • Hair, which insulates their bodies
  • Mammary glands, which produce milk

Monotremes lay eggs

slide29

Figure 18.21B

  • The embryos of marsupials and eutherians are nurtured by the placenta within the uterus
  • Marsupial offspring complete development attached to the mother, usually inside a pouch
slide30

Figure 18.21C

  • Eutherians- placental mammal complete development before birth
the end of animalia notes
The End of Animalia Notes!
  • Kingdom Books due 4/30!