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1. Compare how trade transformed Classic Greek and Roman society. 2. Compare the evolution of political systems in classic Greece and Rome. 3. Compare gender roles in Classic Greece and Rome. they both _________________________________, however they

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1. Compare how trade transformed Classic Greek and Roman society.

2. Compare the evolution of political systems in classic Greece and Rome.

3. Compare gender roles in Classic Greece and Rome.

they both _________________________________, however they

differ in terms of _____________________________. The reason

for this difference is ___________________________.

The evolution of political systems in Classic Greece and Rome is similar in

in terms _________________________________.

However because __________________ they differ in

terms of ______________.


C 11: Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase

C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

Kingdom of Rome: 8th C BCE – 509 BCE

Roman Republic: 509 BCE – 49 BCE

Punic Wars: 264-146 BCE

Civil Wars: 87 BCE – 49 BCE

Roman Empire: 49 BCE – 476 CE


Punic Wars: 264 -146 BCE

  • 70,000 soldiers and 37
  • elephants crossed the Alps
  • into Italy
  • Romans spread salt in Carthage
  • Rome eventually defeats
  • Carthage for control of
  • Mediterranean
  • Hannibal drinks poison
  • rather than be controlled by the
  • Romans (50,000 = slavery)

Two Consuls:

One military, one civil

  • Twelve Tables: 449 BCE
  • Innocent until proven guilty
  • Right to face accuser in court
  • Right for judges to set aside unfair verdicts

Structure ofGovernment



  • Chosen by the Senate
  • 2 chosen each year
  • Head of State – commanded army
  • Could become Dictator for 6 months in times of need
  • Veto (I forbid) power over Senate
  • Main lawmaking body
  • 300 Patricians appointed for life
  • Controlled foreign affairs
  • Selected Dictator




  • Elected by the Plebeians
  • Approved Consuls
  • Later given power to pass laws
  • 2 to 10 Chosen by Plebeian Council
  • Could Veto actions of the Consuls and the Senate

(For Adult White Male Citizens)


Roman Law: The Twelve Tables

  • Finally in 450B.C. the laws were engraved on 12 bronze
  • tablets called the Twelve Tables. They were displayed
  • in the Forum, so all citizens could see their rights.
  • First written law code in Rome – written in 451 B.C.E.
  • All Free citizens had equal protection under the law.
  • Protected the rights of the Plebeians

Marriages between plebeians and patricians are forbidden

An obviously deformed child must be put to death.

A person who admits to owing money or has been adjudged to owe money must be given 30 days to pay.

If a father sells his son into slavery three times, the son shall be free of his father


How did the Roman Republic

treat conquered peoples?

How did this change with the

transformation to empire?

Expansion of Republic w/ military threats and incentives: tax

Incentives/ trade privileges/ promise of citizenship/ let them govern

their own affairs/ couldn’t make a military alliance with anyone else/

had to provide soldiers and military support for the empire (Private armies??)

Empire (Caesar): gave citizenship to provinces/ confiscated land from conservative

aristocrats and gave to veterans and supporters/ eased the suffering of the poor

Empire (Augustus): more centralized…

Gracchi Bros?


TEST: 100 points/ 40 Multiple Choice/ 20 matching

C 10/11/12 on FRIDAY OCTOBER 25

Matching will come directly from the People/Terms from your

Homework question sheets

Comparative Essay (In class Blue Book): 75 points

TUESDAY October 29

I will give you 4 questions to prepare.

On test day, I will randomly choose one for you to write.


Roman Arch: Spain

Corbel Arch: Mesoamerica


Naumachia: simulated naval battles in the Colosseum

Romans: heavy use of slave labor to sustain the empire: how does a heavy reliance

on slave labor discourage technological innovation?


Roman Baths

Circus Maximus: Chariot race track 2000 ft long/ 400 ft wide: 27,000 spectators


Roman Road: Pompeii

At peak: Roman Roads = 54,000 miles

Pantheon: temple of the gods

Roman Milestone

Roman Milestone






















Collapse of the Gupta Empire:

Internal Decay and External Pressures

Internal Decay:

Regional states?



Later rulers:

Weak in character/


320-550 CE

External Pressures?:

The White Huns


Observance of caste duties could lead to salvation

(Bhagavad Gita 300 CE)

Women lost rights (no property, no ritual, no study of religion) (child marriage)


Land divisions increased the power of the provincial officials

Caste system remained very strong- undermined need for

Centralized authority


Collapse of the Roman Empire:

Internal Decay and External Pressures

Constantine r. 313-337 CE

Internal Decay:

  • 26 Barracks Emperors
  • Epidemics
  • Disintegration of Imperial Economy
  • Regional Self Sufficiency favored
  • Great wealth in provinces encouraged
  • growth of cities there (infrastructure)
  • Rise of Christianity?


Diocletian r. 284-305 CE


330 CE:

Constantinople the capital


External Pressures:

  • Nature of barbarian

relationship with Roman

Empire during times of


  • Visigoths sacked

Rome 410CE

  • Attila the Hun

(Died 453CE)

  • Germanic nomads
  • Establish Germanic

Emperor in 476 CE


Germanic invasions and the fall of the

Western Roman empire: 450-476 CE



  • Roman Empire survives another

1000 years as the Byzantine Empire

  • nomadic groups build successor

states in the West

  • Christianity survives
  • Edict of Milan 313 CE?
  • Constantine’s Conversion
  • Council of Nicea 325 CE?

(Consensus on doctrine)

  • Emperor Theodosius proclaimed

Christianity the official religion of

the Roman empire

  • pope as spiritual leader of

church in the West


Collapse of the Han Dynasty:

Internal Decay and External Pressures

Spread of Epidemic Disease

Sets the Stage……

  • Internal Decay:
  • Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure
  • Marriage alliances led to


  • Continued problem of land distribution
  • disease
  • Yellow Turban Uprising 184CE
  • 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms

External Pressures:

  • Immigration of northern nomads increases

Collapse of the Han Dynasty:

Internal Decay and External Pressures


  • sinicization of nomadic peoples

(adoption of sedentary lifestyle, adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage

  • rise in Buddhism and Daoism (Confucianism loses credibility: WHY?)
  • disintegration into 3 regional states

C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

Hellenistic era as stage for

Silk Road Boom?

Why safe to travel now

during the Classic Era?

Han/ Rome/ Khushan/ Parthians

The Silk Road: 200 BCE – 300 CE


From East Asia:

Ginger, cinnamon, silk

From South Asia:

Pepper, sesame oil

From Central Asia:

Horses, jade

From South East Asia:

Clove, nutmeg, mace

From the


Glassware, jewelry,

Textiles, pottery


Effects of this Boom in Trade:

  • Economic activities become more sophisticated and productive
  • cultural exchange (art, language, religion)/ role of oasis towns
  • spread of Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity
  • Manichaeism (Best example of religious syncretism along Silk Road)
  • spread of disease weakened Han and Roman empires in particular
  • reduction in trade with collapse


Elements of: Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra), Christianity (Jesus) and

Buddhism (Buddha)

Prophet Mani (216-272 CE): a prophet for all of humanity

Dualism and cosmic struggle (strong rationale for presence of good and evil)

Personal salvation

Strong missionary component

Ascetic lifestyle (no marriage, no sex, no alcohol)

High ethical standards

Manichaeism Priests (3rd – 7th CE)